Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This native perennial plant is 3-4' tall and unbranched, except for the upper flowering stems. The stems are covered with white hairs. The opposite leaves are up to 5" long and 1" across, occasionally with small teeth along the margins. They are usually dark green, lanceolate to narrowly ovate, and pubescent. There are three conspicuous veins that run along the length of each leaf. The rather flat inflorescence consists of numerous heads of small white flowers and their buds. These flowers are dull white and individually only 1/8" across. There is little or no floral scent. The blooming period occurs from late summer to early fall, and lasts about 1-1½ months. The achenes develop small tufts of white or light brown hair; they are dispersed by the wind. This plant may spread vegetatively through rhizomes. Cultivation
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Comments

Tall Boneset often competes directly with Solidago canadensis (Canada Goldenrod) in disturbed areas, although it prefers slightly drier areas. The two plants appear similar to each other prior to bloom, although the former has darker leaves. This plant provides some white color to a fall landscape that is often dominated by forbs with yellow flowers and the brown color of dried-out grasses. This is the easiest boneset to grow in dry sunny areas. Some people may mistake this plant for a weed, which it is to some extent. Return
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Tall Boneset occurs in most of Illinois, except some southern counties (see Distribution Map). It is a common plant. Habitats include mesic to slightly dry black soil prairies, clay prairies, gravel prairies, savannas, thickets, openings in upland forests, dry banks of lakes, limestone glades, pastures and abandoned fields, fence rows, vacant lots, and areas along railroads. This plant favors disturbed areas, where it may form large colonies. Faunal Associations
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Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium altissimum L.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennials, 50–150+ cm. Stems (from short caudices or stout rhizomes) single, sparsely branched distally, pubescent throughout (nodes sometimes with galls). Leaves usually opposite (nodes often appearing leafy, lateral buds producing 2+ pairs of leaves); sessile or subsessile; blades strongly 3-nerved from bases, lance-elliptic to oblanceolate, 50–120 × 5–20 mm, bases ± cuneate, margins entire proximally, serrate distally, apices acuminate, faces puberulent or villous, gland-dotted. Heads in corymbiform arrays. Phyllaries 8–10 in 2–3 series, oblong, 1–4 × 0.5–1.5 mm, (bases tapered) apices rounded to acute (not mucronate), abaxial faces pubescent throughout. Florets 5; corollas 3–3.5 mm. Cypselae 2–3 mm; pappi of 30–40 bristles 3.5–4 mm. 2n = 20, 30, 40.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Tall Boneset occurs in most of Illinois, except some southern counties (see Distribution Map). It is a common plant. Habitats include mesic to slightly dry black soil prairies, clay prairies, gravel prairies, savannas, thickets, openings in upland forests, dry banks of lakes, limestone glades, pastures and abandoned fields, fence rows, vacant lots, and areas along railroads. This plant favors disturbed areas, where it may form large colonies. Faunal Associations
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Tall Boneset in Illinois

Eupatorium altissimum (Tall Boneset)
(All insects suck nectar; most observations are from Robertson, otherwise they are from Hilty as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera (Rb, H) fq; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus fraternus, Bombus impatiens, Bombus pensylvanica; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla; Anthophoridae (Epeolini): Triepeolus donatus, Triepeolus pectoralis fq; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes rustica fq; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada vicina vicina fq; Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica (H)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella aurata, Augochloropsis metallica metallica, Halictus confusus, Halictus ligatus, Lasioglossum illinoensis, Lasioglossum imitatus, Lasioglossum versatus, Lasioglossum zephyrus; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes americana; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis; Andrenindae (Andreninae): Andrena asteris fq; Andrenindae (Panurginae): Perdita octomaculatus

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembicinae): Bicyrtes ventralis, Stizus brevipennis; Sphecidae (Crabroninae): Ectemnius dilectus, Oxybelus packardii; Sphecidae (Larrinae): Ancistromma distincta fq; Sphecidae (Philanthinae): Eucerceris zonata, Philanthus ventilabris; Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila nigricans fq, Ammophila procera, Isodontia apicalis; Vespidae: Polistes annularis, Polistes fuscata; Vespidae (Eumeninae): Ancistrocerus adiabatus, Ancistrocerus campestris, Eumenes fraterna, Euodynerus foraminatus, Zethus spinipes; Sapygidae: Sapyga interrupta; Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta; Pompilidae: Anoplius lepidus, Entypus fulvicornis; Chrysididae: Hedychrum wiltii; Ichneumonidae: Ceratogastra ornata

Flies
Syrphidae: Milesia virginiensis, Spilomyia longicornis, Syritta pipiens; Empidae: Empis clausa; Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata, Sparnopolius confusus, Toxophora amphitea, Villa hypomelas; Conopidae: Physoconops brachyrhynchus, Thecophora occidensis; Tachinidae: Archytas analis, Archytas aterrima, Gnadochaeta globosa, Gymnoclytia immaculata, Leskiomima secunda (Rb, MS), Linnaemya comta, Phasia fumosa, Phorantha asteris (Rb, MS), Spallanzania hesperidarum; Sarcophagidae: Sphixapata trilineata; Muscidae: Graphomya americana, Morellia micans, Neomyia cornicina; Calliphoridae: Cochliomyia macellaria

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Chlosyne nycteis, Danaus plexippus (H), Euphydryas phaeton, Junonia coenia (H), Libytheana carinenta (H), Phyciodes tharos; Pieridae: Colias eurytheme (H), Pontia protodice

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Polites peckius (Rb, H), Polites themistocles

Moths
Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis; Noctuidae: Helicoverpa zea (H); Yponomoutidae: Attera punctella (H)

Beetles
Cantharidae: Chauliognathus pennsylvanicus (H)

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Lygus lineolaris fq

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Eupatorium altissimum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Eupatorium altissimum

Eupatorium altissimum is a perennial plant whose native range includes much of the eastern United States and Canada. It almost always grows on limestone soils, as does Brickellia eupatorioides, which it is potentially confused with. It can hybridize with Eupatorium serotinum.[2]

It is part of Eupatorium even when that genus is defined narrowly, to include about 40 species of mostly white-flowered plants of North America, Asia, and Europe.[3][4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Eupatorium altissimum". NatureServe Explorer. NatureServe. Retrieved 2010-09-12. 
  2. ^ "Eupatorium altissimum". Flora of North America. 
  3. ^ Gregory J. Schmidt and Edward E. Schilling (2000). "Phylogeny and biogeography of Eupatorium (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae) based on nuclear ITS sequence data". American Journal of Botany 87 (5): 716–726. doi:10.2307/2656858. JSTOR 2656858. PMID 10811796. 
  4. ^ "Eupatorium". Flora of North America. 
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Notes

Comments

Eupatorium altissimum occurs in sexual diploid populations in the Ozark region of Missouri and Arkansas, and as apomictic polyploids elsewhere throughout its range. It occurs almost exclusively on limestone soils, where it is often accompanied by (and sometimes misidentified as) Brickellia eupatorioides, which has 10-ribbed cypselae and plumose pappus bristles. Eupatorium altissimum hybridizes with E. serotinum.
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