The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.

References

  • 10. Strausbaugh, P. D.; Core, Earl L. 1977. Flora of West Virginia. 2nd ed. Morgantown, WV: Seneca Books, Inc. 1079 p. [23213]
  • 11. Cragg, J. B.; Carter, Alan; Leischner, Clara; [and others]
  • 12. Crouch, Glenn L. 1985. Effects of clearcutting a subalpine forest in central Colorado on wildlife habitat. Res. Pap. RM-258. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 12 p. [8225]
  • 13. Daubenmire, R. 1970. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Technical Bulletin 62. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, College of Agriculture, Washington Agricultural Experiment Station. 131 p. [733]
  • 14. Daubenmire, Rexford. 1969. Structure and ecology of coniferous forests of the northern Rocky Mountains. In: Taber, Richard D., ed. Coniferous forests of the northern Rocky Mountains: Proceedings of the 1968 symposium; 1968 September 17-20; Missoula, MT. Missoula, MT: University of Montana Foundation, Center for Natural Resources: 25-41. [7539]
  • 15. Dittberner, Phillip L.; Olson, Michael R. 1983. The plant information network (PIN) data base: Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. FWS/OBS-83/86. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. 786 p. [806]
  • 18. Dorn, Robert D. 1988. Vascular plants of Wyoming. Cheyenne, WY: Mountain West Publishing. 340 p. [6129]
  • 1803. In: Fl. Bor.-Amer. (Michaux): 166.
  • 19. Douglas, David C.; Ratti, John T. 1984. Avian habitat associations in riparian zones of the Centennial Mountains and surrounding areas, Idaho. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Department of Zoology, Wildlife Biology. 125 p. [14928]
  • 2. Antos, Joseph A.; Zobel, Donald B. 1985. Plant form, developmental plasticity and survival following burial by volcanic tephra. Canadian Journal of Botany. 63: 2083-2090. [12553]
  • 20. Douglas, George Wayne. 1970. A vegetation study in the subalpine zone of the western North Cascades, Washington. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 293 p. Thesis. [8560]
  • 22. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 24. Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New York Botanical Garden. 910 p. [20329]
  • 26. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. 1392 p. [1603]
  • 28. Hamer, David; Herrero, Stephen; Brady, Keith. 1991. Food and habitat used by grizzly bears, Ursus arctos, along the Continental Divide in Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(3): 325-329. [18672]
  • 29. Hansen, Paul; Boggs, Keith; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John. 1990. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in central and eastern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Montana Riparian Association. 279 p. [12477]
  • 3. Arno, Stephen F.; Weaver, Tad. 1990. Whitebark pine community types and their patterns on the landscape. In: Schmidt, Wyman C.; McDonald, Kathy J., compilers. Proceedings--symposium on whitebark pine ecosystems: ecology and management of a high-mountain resource; 1989 March 29-31; Bozeman, MT. Gen Tech. Rep. INT-270. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 97-105. [11680]
  • 30. Harrington, H. D. 1964. Manual of the plants of Colorado. 2d ed. Chicago: The Swallow Press Inc. 666 p. [6851]
  • 31. Hawk, G. M.; Zobel, D. B. 1974. Forest succession on alluvial landforms of the McKenzie River Valley, Oregon. Northwest Science. 48(4): 245-265. [9686]
  • 32. Hemstrom, Miles A.; Logan, Sheila E.; Pavlat, Warren. 1987. Plant association and management guide: Willamette National Forest. R6-Ecol 257-B-86. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Region. 312 p. [13402]
  • 33. Hendrix, Stephen D. 1984. Reactions of Heracleum lanatum to floral herbivory by Depressaria pastinacella. Ecology. 65(1): 191-197. [24217]
  • 34. Hess, Karl; Wasser, Clinton H. 1982. Grassland, shrubland, and forestland habitat types of the White River-Arapaho National Forest. Final Report. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. 335 p. [1142]
  • 35. Hickman, James C., ed. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1400 p. [21992]
  • 36. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1973. Flora of the Pacific Northwest. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 730 p. [1168]
  • 37. Holcroft, Anne C.; Herrero, Stephen. 1991. Black bear, Ursus americanus, food habits in southwestern Alberta. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 105(3): 335-345. [18673]
  • 38. Horton, Howard, ed. and compiler. 1989. Interagency forage and conservation planting guide for Utah. Extension Circular 433. Logan, UT: Utah State University, Cooperative Extension Service. 67 p. [12231]
  • 39. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 4. Bartos, D. L.; Mueggler, W. F. 1982. Early succession following clearcutting of aspen communities in northern Utah. Journal of Range Management. 35(6): 764-768. [3279]
  • 40. Jenkins, K. J.; Wright, R. G. 1988. Resource partitioning and competition among cervids in the northern Rocky Mountains. Journal of Applied Ecology. 25: 11-24. [16289]
  • 41. Johnston, B. C.; Hendzel, L. 1985. Examples of aspen treatment, succession, and management in western Colorado. Lakewood, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Region. 164 p. [18670]
  • 42. Kearney, Thomas H.; Peebles, Robert H.; Howell, John Thomas; McClintock, Elizabeth. 1960. Arizona flora. 2d ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1085 p. [6563]
  • 43. Kendall, Katherine C. 1986. Grizzly and black bear feeding ecology in Glacier National Park, Montana. Progress Report. West Glacier, Montana: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Glacier National Park Biosphere Preserve, Science Center. 42 p. [19361]
  • 44. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
  • 46. Kudish, Michael. 1992. Adirondack upland flora: an ecological perspective. Saranac, NY: The Chauncy Press. 320 p. [19376]
  • 47. Lackschewitz, Klaus. 1991. Vascular plants of west-central Montana--identification guidebook. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-227. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 648 p. [13798]
  • 48. Lepofsky, Dana; Turner, Nancy J.; Kuhnlein, Harriet V. 1985. Determining the availability of traditional wild plant foods: an example of Nuxalk foods, Bella Coola, British Columbia. Ecology of Food and Nutrition. 16: 223-241. [7002]
  • 5. Berenbaum, M. R.; Zangerl, A. R. 1991. Acquisition of a native hostplant by an introduced oligophagous herbivore. Oikos. 62: 153-159. [24216]
  • 50. Marks, Jeffrey S.; Marks, Victoria Saab. 1987. Habitat selection by Columbian sharp-tailed grouse in west-central Idaho. Boise, ID: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Boise District. 115 p. [23503]
  • 52. McCrory, Wayne; Herrero, Stephen; Whitfield, Phil. 1986. Using grizzly bear habitat information to reduce human-grizzly bear conflicts in Kokanee Glacier and Valhalla Provincial Parks, B. C. In: Contreras, Glen P.; Evans, Keith E., compilers. Proceedings--grizzly bear habitat symposium; 1985 April 30 - May 2; Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-207. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station: 24-30. [10809]
  • 54. McMillan, John F. 1953. Some feeding habits of moose in Yellowstone Park. Ecology. 34: 102-110. [7422]
  • 55. Mealey, Stephen P.; Jonkel, Charles J.; Demarchi, Ray. 1977. Habitat criteria for grizzly bear management. In: Peterie, T., ed. Proceedings, 13th international congress of game biologists; 1977 March 11-15; Atlanta, GA. No. 13. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 56. Mealey, Stephen Patrick. 1975. The natural food habits of free ranging grizzly bears in Yellowstone National Park, 1973-1974. Bozeman, MT: Montana State University. 158 p. Thesis. [10580]
  • 57. Mueggler, W. F. 1985. Forage. In: DeByle, Norbert V.; Winokur, Robert P., eds. Aspen: ecology and management in the western United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-119. Fort Collins, CO: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 129-134. [11915]
  • 58. Mueggler, Walter F.; Campbell, Robert B., Jr. 1986. Aspen community types of Utah. Res. Pap. INT-362. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. 69 p. [1714]
  • 59. Munz, Philip A. 1973. A California flora and supplement. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1905 p. [6155]
  • 60. Padgett, Wayne G.; Youngblood, Andrew P.; Winward, Alma H. 1989. Riparian community type classification of Utah and southeastern Idaho. R4-Ecol-89-01. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 191 p. [11360]
  • 63. Radford, Albert E.; Ahles, Harry E.; Bell, C. Ritchie. 1968. Manual of the vascular flora of the Carolinas. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press. 1183 p. [7606]
  • 64. Ralphs, M. H.; Pfister, J. A. 1992. Cattle diets in tall forb communities on mountain ranges. Journal of Range Management. 45(6): 534-537. [20189]
  • 67. Reichert, Chris. 1989. Silviculture in grizzly bear habitat. In: Silviculture for all resources: Proceedings of the national silviculture workshop; 1987 May 11-14; Sacramento, CA. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service: 48-60. [6398]
  • 68. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 69. Ruediger, William; Mealey, Stephen. 1978. Coordination guidelines for timber harvesting in grizzly bear habitat in northwestern Montana. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 7. Boggs, Keith; Hansen, Paul; Pfister, Robert; Joy, John. 1990. Classification and management of riparian and wetland sites in northwestern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana, School of Forestry, Montana Forest and Conservation Experiment Station, Montana Riparian Association. 217 p. Draft Version 1. [8447]
  • 72. Shaw, Nancy L.; Monsen, Stephen B. 1983. Nonleguminous forbs for rangeland sites. In: Monsen, Stephen B.; Shaw, Nancy, compilers. Managing Intermountain rangelands--improvement of range and wildlife habitats: Proceedings of of symposia; 1981 September 15-17; Twin Falls, ID; 1982 June 22-24; Elko, NV. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-157. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station: 123-131. [2121]
  • 73. Stevens, Richard; Jorgensen, Kent R.; Davis, James N. 1981. Viability of seed from thirty-two shrub and forb species through fifteen years of warehouse storage. Great Basin Naturalist. 41(3): 274-277. [2244]
  • 75. Strong, W. L.; Pluth, D. J.; LaRoi, G. H.; Corns, I. G. W. 1991. Forest understory plants as predictors of lodgepole pine and white spruce site quality in west-central Alberta. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 21: 1675-1683. [17695]
  • 77. Todd, Paul A. 1992. Mountain beaver habitat use and management implications in Yosemite National Park. Natural Areas Journal. 12(1): 26-31. [18712]
  • 78. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 1994. Plants of the U.S.--alphabetical listing. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 954 p. [23104]
  • 8. Carleton, T. J.; Maycock, P. F. 1981. Understorey - canopy affinities in boreal forest vegetation. Canadian Journal of Botany. 59: 1709-1716. [14576]
  • 80. Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 p. [11472]
  • 81. Weaver, John L. 1985. Charting the course: The Forest Service grizzly bear conservation program. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 1. 11 p. Report on file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [17282]
  • 82. Welsh, Stanley L.; Atwood, N. Duane; Goodrich, Sherel; Higgins, Larry C., eds. 1987. A Utah flora. Great Basin Naturalist Memoir No. 9. Provo, UT: Brigham Young University. 894 p. [2944]
  • 83. Wofford, B. Eugene. 1989. Guide to the vascular plants of the Blue Ridge. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 384 p. [12908]
  • 84. Young, Donald R. 1985. Microclimate effects on water relations, leaf temperatures, and the distribution of Heracleum lanatum at high elevations. American Journal of Botany. 72(3): 357-364. [24218]
  • 85. Youngblood, Andrew P. 1981. Aspen community type classifications in the Intermountain West. In: DeByle, Norbert V., ed. Symposium proceedings--situation management of two Intermountain species: aspen and coyotes. Volume 1. Aspen; 1981 April 23-24; Logan, UT. Logan, UT: Utah State University, College of Natural Resources: 40-57. [10437]
  • 86. Youngblood, Andrew P.; Padgett, Wayne G.; Winward, Alma H. 1985. Riparian community type classification of eastern Idaho - western Wyoming. R4-Ecol-85-01. Ogden, UT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Region. 78 p. [2686]
  • 87. Zager, Peter Edward. 1980. The influence of logging and wildfire on grizzly bear habitat in northwestern Montana. Missoula, MT: University of Montana. 131 p. Dissertation. [5032]
  • 88. Zager, Peter E.; Jonkel, Charles J. 1983. Managing grizzly bear habitat in the northern Rocky Mountains. Journal of Forestry. 81(8): 524-526, 536. [14790]
  • 9. Cole, David N.; Trull, Susan J. 1992. Quantifying vegetation response to recreational disturbance in the North Cascades, Washington. American Midland Naturalist. 66(4): 229-236. [19965]
  • 91. Crane, Marilyn F. 1982. Fire ecology of Rocky Mountain Region forest habitat types. Final Report Contract No. 43-83X9-1-884. Missoula, MT: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Region 1. 272 p. On file with: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT. [5292]
  • 93. DeByle, Norbert V.; Bevins, Collin D.; Fischer, William C. 1987. Wildfire occurrence in aspen in the interior western United States. Western Journal of Applied Forestry. 2(3): 73-76. [774]
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication. illinoiswildflowers.info, version (07/2014) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Image metadata at Bioimages (http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/)   http://bioimages.vanderbilt.edu/baskauf/00000 External link.
  • Watson M. (2013). Umbellifers: World Umbellifer Database (version Nov 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at www.catalogueoflife.org/col/. Species 2000: Reading, UK.

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!