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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: A native of Europe and N. Africa. The ‘Guelder rose’ or ‘Snow-ball tree’ is reportedly cultivated in Abbottabad (fide R. R. Stewart, l.c.).
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

A deciduous shrub, branches and stem smooth, glabrous and angled, young buds protected by scales. Leaves palmately 3-5-nerved; 12 x 8 cm, irregularly 3-5-lobed, lobes coarsely dentate, glabrous above, pubescent beneath; petiole 2-3 cm long, with a narrow groove and large discoid glands. Stipules filiform with disc-like glands at the tip. Flowers sterile, in peduncled corymbs. Calyx small. Corolla 5-15 mm in diameter.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Ecology

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Cranberry Bush in Illinois

Viburnum opulus (Cranberry Bush) introduced (in part)
(there are American and European varieties of this shrub; insect activity is unspecified, however in general bees suck nectar or collect pollen, flies and beetles suck nectar or feed on pollen, while wasps, ants, sawflies, skippers, moths, and plant bugs suck nectar; some observations are from Krombein et al. and Lisberg & Young as indicated below, otherwise observations are from Krannitz & Maun; the observations of Krannitz & Maun apply to the fertile European variety, Viburnum opulus opulus)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae: Augochlorella striata, Lasioglossum sp., Lasioglossum coriaceus, Lasioglossum zonulum; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena alleghaniensis (Kr), Andrena commoda, Andrena cressonii, Andrena forbesii (Kr), Andrena hippotes (Kr), Andrena imitatrix, Andrena miranda (Kr, KM), Andrena nasonii, Andrena salictaria (Kr), Andrena vicina, Andrena wilkella

Wasps
Pteromalidae: Macroglenes penetrans

Ants
Formicidae (Formicinae): Formica fusca, Prenolepis imparis

Sawflies
Tenthredinidae: Hoplocampa sialica

Flies
Culicidae: Aedes stimulans; Dolichopodidae: Condylostylus sp.; Bibionidae: Dilophus sp.; Syrphidae: Chrysogaster antitheus, Didea fuscipes, Eristalis arbustorum, Orthonevra pulchella, Syritta pipiens, Syrphus rectus, Temnostoma alternans, Temnostoma acrum, Toxomerus geminatus, Toxomerus marginatus fq; Tachinidae: Platymya confusionis, Strongygaster triangulifer; Anthomyiidae: Delia florilega, Delia platura fq; Calliphoridae: Pollenia rudis; Muscidae: Coenosia tigrina; Chloropidae: Unidentified sp.

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Polites themistocles

Moths
Ctenuchidae: Cisseps fulvicollis

Beetles
Cantharidae: Cantharis sp.; Cerambycidae: Cyrtophorus verrucosum, Molorchus bimaculatus; Dermestidae: Anthrenus fuscus, Anthrenus verbasci; Mordellidae: Mordella sp., Mordella marginata (LY); Nitulidae: Carpophilus brachypterus; Scarabaeidae: Trichiotinus assimilis

Plant Bugs
Miridae: Corimelaena pulicarius, Lygus lineolaris fq

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Foodplant / feeds on
imago of Anthaxia nitidula feeds on leaf of Viburnum opulus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis fabae sucks sap of stem of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: winter
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / gall
Aphis viburni causes gall of live, curled leaf (young) of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: 4-5
Other: major host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, immersed, pale brownish then darker pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta viburni causes spots on live leaf of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: 8-9

Foodplant / gall
Ceruaphis eriophori causes gall of live, curled leaf (young) of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: 4-5
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
scattered, erumpent, plurilocular stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora lantanae is saprobic on dead twig of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: 1-5

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, gregarious perithecium of Diaporthe beckhausii is saprobic on dead twig of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: 1

Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Erysiphe sparsa parasitises live leaf of Viburnum opulus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Hyphodontia pruni is saprobic on dead, fallen, decayed wood of Viburnum opulus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
usually scattered, immersed then erumpent pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis tinea is saprobic on dead branch of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, few pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta opuli causes spots on live leaf of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: 8-9

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Pyrrhalta viburni grazes on live leaf of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: 7-

Foodplant / spot causer
mostly hypophyllous colony of Stigmina dematiaceous anamorph of Stigmina tinea causes spots on live leaf of Viburnum opulus

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, 5 to 8 in a ring perithecium of Valsa ambiens is saprobic on dead branch of Viburnum opulus
Remarks: season: 10-5

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Viburnum opulus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Viburnum opulus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 14
Specimens with Barcodes: 22
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Viburnum opulus

Viburnum opulus (common name guelder-rose[1]) is a species of flowering plant in the family Adoxaceae (formerly Caprifoliaceae) native to Europe, northern Africa and central Asia.[2]

Names[edit]

The common name 'guelder rose' relates to the Dutch province of Gelderland, where a popular cultivar, the snowball tree, supposedly originated.[3] Other common names include water elder, cramp bark, snowball tree and European cranberry bush, though this plant is not closely related to the cranberry. Some botanists also include the North American species Viburnum trilobum as V. opulus var. americanum Ait., or as V. opulus subsp. trilobum (Marshall) Clausen.

Description[edit]

Flowers (left) and fruit

V. opulus is a deciduous shrub growing to 4–5 m (13–16 ft) tall. The leaves are opposite, three-lobed, 5–10 cm (2–4 in) long and broad, with a rounded base and coarsely serrated margins; they are superficially similar to the leaves of some maples, most easily distinguished by their somewhat wrinkled surface with impressed leaf venation. The leaf buds are green, with valvate bud scales.

The hermaphrodite flowers are white, produced in corymbs 4–11 cm (2–4 in) in diameter at the top of the stems; each corymb comprises a ring of outer sterile flowers 1.5–2 cm in diameter with conspicuous petals, surrounding a center of small (5 mm), fertile flowers; the flowers are produced in early summer, and pollinated by insects. The fruit is a globose bright red drupe 7–10 mm diameter, containing a single seed. The seeds are dispersed by birds.

Cultivation[edit]

V. opulus is grown as an ornamental plant for its flowers and berries, growing best on moist, moderately alkaline soils, though tolerating most soil types well. Several cultivars have been selected, including 'Roseum' (synonym 'Sterile', 'Snowball'), in which all the flowers are only of the larger sterile type, with globular flower heads. There is some confusion, as there are a few other plants, including other members of the Viburnum genus, also referred to as "snowball bush".

The shrub is also cultivated as a component of hedgerows, cover plantings, and as part of other naturalistic plantings in its native regions.

It is naturalised in North America, where it has been misleadingly renamed "European Cranberrybush" (it is not a cranberry).

The cultivars 'Compactum',[4] 'Roseum'[5] and 'Xanthocarpum'[6] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Other uses[edit]

The fruit is edible in small quantities, with a very acidic taste; it can be used to make jelly. It is however very mildly toxic, and may cause vomiting or diarrhea if eaten in large amounts.[7]

The term cramp bark is related to the properties of the bark's ability to reduce smooth muscle tightness. It is called cramp bark as relieving this type of muscle tightness is most often associated with relieving women's menstrual (period) cramps. However, this can also be used during pregnancy for cramps or pain and general muscle cramping.[8]

Cultural meaning[edit]

Viburnum opulus (Kalyna) is one of the National symbols of Ukraine[citation needed]. Mentions of the bush can be found throughout the Ukrainian folklore such as songs, picturesque art, Ukrainian embroidery, and others. Chervona Kalyna was the anthem of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army. Kalyna Country is an ecomuseum in Canada.

This bush's symbolic roots can be traced to the Slavic paganism of millennia ago. According to a legend Kalyna was associated with the birth of the Universe, the so-called Fire Trinity: the Sun, the Moon, and the Star.[9][10] Its berries symbolize blood and the undying trace of family roots. Kalyna is often depicted on the Ukrainian embroidery: towels and shirts. In Slavic paganism kalyna also represents the beauty of a young lady which rhymes well in the Ukrainian language: Ka-ly-na - Div-chy-na.[11][12][13] That consistency was reviewed by numerous Ukrainian folklorists such as Nikolay Kostomarov, Aleksandr Potebnia (founder of the Kharkiv Linguistic School).

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BSBI List 2007" (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  3. ^ The Reader's Digest Field Guide to the Trees and Shrubs of Britain p.143.
  4. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Viburnum opulus 'Compactum'". Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  5. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Viburnum opulus 'Roseum'". Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  6. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Viburnum opulus 'Xanthocarpum'". Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  7. ^ Plants for a Future database
  8. ^ CRAMP BARK: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings - WebMD
  9. ^ Lady of Prykarpattia (Ukrainian)
  10. ^ Ukrainian embroidery (Ukrainian)
  11. ^ Doctor Bozhko, Agrarian Sciences. Trees in culture by folk. (Ukrainian)
  12. ^ Doctor Kuzmenko, Philological Sciences. The symbolics of guilder rose in Ukrainian songs of the 20th century national liberating movements. (English)/(Ukrainian)
  13. ^ a kalyna ne verba-live(Natalka Karpa) (youtube)
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