Overview

Comprehensive Description

Viburnum rufidulum is noted as a food source for most birds, some mammals, even including foxes. The fruits, leaves, and twigs can be eaten by herbivorous animals such as the white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virgianianus) in upland forested areas (Sallee, 2002: 15).

Historically the Plains Apache utilized the plant as a food source (one of 48 plants documented in the study), though it is unclear exactly what part of the plant was used (Jordan, 2006: 28).

References

Jordan, J. 2006. Vascular Plants Utilized by the Plains Apache in Southwestern Oklahoma. Publications of the Oklahoma Biological Survey 7: 24-33.

Sallee, D. 2002. Use of Geographic Information Systems and Infrared-Triggered Cameras to Assess White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virgianianus) in Denton County, Texas. (Master of Science thesis). 106 pp. Denton, Texas: University of North Texas.

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Viburnum rufidulum can reach 3.5 m in height and produce seeds after 5 years (Bonner et al., 2008: 1163). The leaf petioles and undersides have rusty hairy. The oval leaves are dark and shiny on the upper surface and can grow up to 10 cm long (Hunter, 2000: 174). The flower buds are a reddish brown and the flowers are white and occasionally even pinkish. The flowers are arranged flattened, rounded and in convex cymes (a flat-topped cluster of flowers in which the central or terminal flower opens first)(Bonner et al., 2008: 1163). The flowers can grow up to four inches across. (Hunter, 2000: 174) The flowering dates are primarily from March to June depending upon the region. (Bonner et al., 2008: 1163). Pollination is by insects (Bonner et al., 2008: 1163). The dark blue fruits are approximately 13 mm in length, elliptical (oval) and slightly flattened (Hunter, 2000: 174). The fruit ripens September to October (producing 5,200 kg dried fruits/kg) and seed dispersal can occur in December (Bonner et al., 2008: 1163, 1165).

References

Bonner, F. T., Gill, J. D. & Pogge, F. L. 2008. Caprifoliaceae-Honeysuckle family, 1162-1167. In: The Woody Plant Seed Manual: Agricultural Handbook No. 727. 1223 pp, Washington, DC. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service.

Hunter, G.C. 2000. Trees, Shrubs, & Vines of Arkansas. 203 pp, Arkansas: University of Arkansas Press

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Viburnum rufidulum does not tolerate water with a high concentration of chloride. In one experiment, Viburnum rufidulum suffered 80% leaf burn when watered with reclaimed water, although the roots were not affected (Parnell, 1990: 378).

References

Parnell, J. 1990. Reclaimed Water and Florida Natives. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticulture Society, 103: 377-379.

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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Viburnum rufidulum Raf.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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The shrub Viburnum rufidulum or rusty blackhaw is distributed as far west as Kansas and in the states of Florida, Georgia, Tennessee, Texas, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and Kentucky (USDA, 2012).

References

United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). 2012. Natural Resources Conservation Service; available at: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=VIRU; accessed on: October 17, 2012.

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Ecology

Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Southern Blackhaw in Illinois

Viburnum rufidulum (Southern Blackhaw)
(also called Rusty Viburnum; beetle activity is unspecified; observations are from MacRae; information is limited)

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera neglecta (McR), Acmaeodera ornata (McR), Acmaeodera tubulus (McR)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Viburnum rufidulum

Viburnum rufidulum, also known as the rusty blackhaw,[1] blue haw,[1] rusty nanny-berry,[1] or southern black haw,[1] is a flowering species of shrub or small tree that is common in parts of the Eastern and Central United States.[2][3] It produces attractive flowers and fall foliage, as well as fruits that are popular with some species of bird.

Description[edit]

Leathery deciduous leaves are simple and grow in opposite blades ranging from 0.5-3 inches in length and 1-1.5 inches in width.[2][3] Petioles are "rusty hairy" with grooves and sometimes wings.[3] Leaf margins are serrate.[2] Autumn leaf colors are bronze to red.[3]

Twigs range in color from "reddish brown to gray"; young twigs are hairy, and get smoother with age.[3]

Bark is similar that of the Flowering Dogwood, ranging in color from "reddish brown to almost black" and forming "blocky plates on larger trunks".[3]

V. rufidulum blooms in April to May with creamy white flowers that are bisexual, or perfect and similar to those of other Viburnum species, but with clusters as large as six inches wide.[3]

The fruits are purple or dark blue, glaucous, globose or ellipsoid drupes that mature in mid to late summer.[2][3] The fruit has been said to taste like raisins and attract birds.[4]

Rusty hairs on the leaf underside are a diagnostic characteristic of this species.

Distribution[edit]

The Rusty Blackhaw prefers dry habitats with elevations generally below 750m.[2]

It grows in Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.[1][5]

Use[edit]

It is occasionally used as an ornamental plant.[3]

Similar species[edit]

See Viburnum prunifolium (Blackhaw). Petioles of V. prunifolium do not have the rusty hairs that those of V. rufidulum do.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e "USDA GRIN taxonomy". 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Duncan, Wilbur H.; Marion B. Duncan (1988). Trees of the Southeastern United States. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press. pp. 100–102. ISBN 0-8203-1469-2. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Brown, Claud L.; L. Katherine Kirkman (1990). Trees of Georgia and Adjacent States. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. pp. 253–254. ISBN 0-88192-148-3. 
  4. ^ "NPIN:Viburnum rufidulum (Rusty blackhaw viburnum)". Native Plant Database. Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center - The University of Texas at Austin. Retrieved 2009-07-30. 
  5. ^ "PLANTS Profile for Viburnum rufidulum (rusty blackhaw)". USDA. Retrieved 2009-07-29. 
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