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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

General: Honeysuckle family (Caprifoliaceae). Twinberry honeysuckle (Lonicera involucrata) is an erect clustered shrub one to three meters high with freely exfoliating bark (Peck 1961). The leaves are opposite, short-stemmed, somewhat elliptical to broadly lanced shaped, pointed often hairy beneath (Pojar & MacKinnon 1994). The flowers are yellow, tinged with red, and cupped by a large pair of green to purplish bracts. The fruits are roundish or oval, blackish berries, paired on long axillary stalks and distinct; ripening August or September (Grimm 1993).

Distribution: Lonicera involcrata is widely distributed across North America from Quebec westward to Alaska and British Columbia and southward into California, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona (McMinn 1939). For current distribution, please consult the Plant profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

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Alternative names

twinberry, black twin-berry, four-line honeysuckle, bearberry honeysuckle

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Adaptation

Twinberry honeysuckle is typically found in moist forests, clearings, riparian habitats, swamps and thickets (MacKinnon, Pojar & Coupe 1992). It prefers a good moist soil but can succeed in any fertile soil. This species grows best and produces abundance of fruit in open sunlight compared to a lost of fruit when grown in the shade.

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Ecology

Dispersal

Establishment

Propagation by Seed: Lonicera involucrata seeds should be collected from isolated plants and extracted by maceration in water (Dirr & Heuser 1987). Sow the seeds as soon as they are ripe in a cold frame. When the seedlings are large enough, plant them directly into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lonicera involucrata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lonicera involucrata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Status

Please consult the Plants Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status, such as, state noxious status and wetland indicator values.

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Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

Somewhat available from native plant nurseries. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

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Twinberry honeysuckle berries has been noted as poisonous. The fruit is bitter and sour and are eaten by some. Since the European species of honeysuckle species are regarded as emetic and cathartic, they are better avoided in favor of something less dubious (Mozingo 1987).

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Risks

Warning

Twinberry honeysuckle is considered toxic and should be used with caution.

Ethnobotanic: The Quileute and Kwakwaka’wakw people used these berries as a black pigment (Pojar & MacKinnon 1994). The Haida rubbed the berries on the scalp to prevent hair from turning gray (Ibid.).

A decoction of the bark has been applied to a woman’s breasts to encourage milk flow (Moerman 1998). An infusion was used to treat chest and stomach complaints and to cleanse the body (Ibid.). The Carrier boiled the leaves and used the liquid to bathe sore eyes, or applied the crushed leaves as a poultice to open sores (Pojar & MacKinnon 1994).

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Wikipedia

Lonicera involucrata

Lonicera involucrata (Bearberry Honeysuckle, Bracted Honeysuckle, Twinberry Honeysuckle, Californian Honeysuckle,[2] Twin-berry, Black Twinberry) is a species of honeysuckle native to northern and western North America, from southern Alaska east across boreal Canada to Quebec, and south through the western United States to California, and to Chihuahua in northwestern Mexico. It grows at elevations from sea level to 2,900 m.[3][4][5]

In fruit
Varitey involucrata

It is a large shrub that can grow 0.5–5 m high, with shoots with a quadrangular cross-section. The leaves are elliptic, to oval-shaped, 3–16 cm long and 2–8 cm broad; they are hairy along the margins and on the underside, and have a distinctive abruptly acuminate tip. The flowers are yellow, tubular, hairy, 1–2 cm long, and are monoecious; they are produced in pairs subtended by a pair of reddish basal bracts 2–4 cm across. The fruit is a 6–12 mm diameter black berry containing several small seeds;[4][5][6]

There are two varieties:[5][7][8]

  • Lonicera involucrata var. involucrata. Most of the species' range, except as below; in California only in the Sierra Nevada. Leaves thin; flowers yellow.
  • Lonicera involucrata var. ledebourii (Eschsch.) Jeps. Coastal California and southern Oregon. Leaves thick, leathery; flowers tinged orange to red outside.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

It is often used as an ornamental plant. It is resistant to air pollution, and can be kept in a large garden.[9] It may edible or very unpalatable, or even poisonous.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 7 December 2014. 
  2. ^ "BSBI List 2007" (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  3. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network: Lonicera involucrata
  4. ^ a b Plants of British Columbia: Lonicera involucrata
  5. ^ a b c Jepson Flora: Lonicera involucrata
  6. ^ BorealForest: Lonicera involucrata
  7. ^ Jepson Flora: Lonicera involucrata var. involucrata
  8. ^ Jepson Flora: Lonicera involucrata var. ledebourii
  9. ^ Blanchan, N. (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation.
  10. ^ Darris, D. (2011). "Plant fact sheet for twinberry honeysuckle (Lonicera involucrata)". USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Corvallis, OR. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: This is the record for Lonicera involucrata in the broad sense. Kartesz (1999) treats Lonicera ledebourii as a variety of Lonicera involucrata (Lonicera involucrata var. ledebourii).

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