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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This plant is an annual or biennial from 2-6' tall. Usually, it is unbranched, although sometimes a few side stems will develop from the lower central stem. The central stem is light green, terete, slightly grooved, and hairy. The alternate leaves are up to 6" long and 2" across, tapering to slender petioles. They are medium to dark green, elliptic to ovate in shape, and their margins are serrated. The texture of the leaves is somewhat rough; they are hairy along the major veins of their undersides. The central stem terminates in a spike of flowers about ½–2' long. From the axils of the upper leaves, secondary spikes of flowers may develop, but these are much shorter (about 1–6" in length). The rachis (central stalk) of each spike is similar to the central stem. The flowers are about 1" across; their corollas vary in color from light to dark violet-blue, depending on the local ecotype. Each corolla has 5 spreading lobes that are divided nearly to the base; they are ovate to obovate in shape. Each corolla has a satiny appearance under bright light, and it tends to have margins that twist and curl. The corolla is often white toward the center, rather than blue-violet. At the center of the corolla is the apex of a 5-angled ovary from which a light violet style is strongly exerted. This style bends downward from the flower, but curls upward near its tip; the small stigma is white and divided into 3 lobes. Each flower also has 5 stamens. The light green calyx is tubular-campanulate in shape with 5 narrow green ridges and 5 long narrow teeth around its upper rim; these teeth curl backward when the flower opens. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer to early fall, lasting about 1½ months. Afterwards, the flowers are replaced by seed capsules that are 5-angled and rather flat-topped. The root system consists of a taproot. Cultivation
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

American Bellflower is a common plant that occurs in most counties of Illinois (see Distribution Map), where it is native. Habitats include moist to slightly dry deciduous woodlands, disturbed open woodlands, woodland borders, and thickets. This plant is often found along woodland paths, and it appears to prefer slightly disturbed areas. Faunal Associations
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

American Bellflower is a common plant that occurs in most counties of Illinois (see Distribution Map), where it is native. Habitats include moist to slightly dry deciduous woodlands, disturbed open woodlands, woodland borders, and thickets. This plant is often found along woodland paths, and it appears to prefer slightly disturbed areas. Faunal Associations
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of American Bellflower in Illinois

Campanulastrum americanum (American Bellflower)
(Bees usually suck nectar, although some bees collect pollen as indicated below; Syrphid flies feed on pollen and are non-pollinating; other insects suck nectar; all observations are from Robertson)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn; Apidae (Bombini): Bombus griseocallis sn, Bombus impatiens sn, Bombus pensylvanica sn fq; Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn; Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile brevis brevis sn, Megachile campanulae campanulae sn cp olg, Megachile petulans cp; Megachilidae (Coelioxini): Coelioxys modesta sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Agapostemon sericea sn, Augochlorella striata cp np, Halictus rubicunda sn, Lasioglossum imitatus cp np; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes latitarsis sn np; Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis fp np

Wasps
Tiphiidae: Myzinum quinquecincta sn

Flies
Syrphidae: Trichopsomyia apisaon fp np

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Vanessa cardui sn

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Staphylus hayhurstii sn

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Campanulastrum americanum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Campanulastrum americanum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Campanula americana

Campanula americana, the American bellflower,[1] is a tall bellflower native to eastern North America from the Great Lakes region south to Florida and from the Dakotas east to New York. This native plant is an annual or biennial from 2-6' tall.[2] Its flowers are light blue to violet and are usually arranged in elongated clusters. It is an unusual bellflower in that its flowers are usually flat and not bell-shaped. It has a varying life-history with seeds germinating in the fall producing annual plants and spring-germinating seeds producing biennial plants. It is generally insect-pollinated, and does not usually self-pollinate.[3]

Some authorities, including the USDA Plants database [4] consider the name Campanulastrum americanum to be the valid and correct name for this species.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Taxon: Campanula americana". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Area. Retrieved 2007-10-29. 
  2. ^ "American Bellflower Wildflowers". 
  3. ^ Galloway, L. F.; J. R. Etterson (2005). "Population differentiation and hybrid success in Campanula americana: geography and genome size". Journal of Evolutionary Biology (European Society for Evolutionary Biology) 18 (1): 81–89. doi:10.1111/j.1420-9101.2004.00801.x. PMID 15669963. 
  4. ^ "PLANTS Profile for Campanulastrum americanum". USDA Plants Database. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 2013-06-11. 


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