The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1.  Braun, E. Lucy. 1961. The woody plants of Ohio. Columbus, OH: Ohio State        University Press. 362 p.  [12914]
  • 10.  Gleason, Henry A.; Cronquist, Arthur. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of        northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 2nd ed. New York: New        York Botanical Garden. 910 p.  [20329]
  • 11.  Harrington, John A. 1989. Major prairie planting on highway corridor to        test methods, value of resulting vegetation (Wisconsin). Restoration and        Management Notes. 7(1): 31-32.  [8069]
  • 12.  Harrington, Robin A.; Brown, Becky J.; Reich, Peter B. 1989. Ecophysiol.        of exotic & native shrubs in s. WI. I. Rel. of leaf charac. resource        availability, & phenol. to seasonal patterns of carbon gain. Oecologia.        80: 356-367.  [9241]
  • 13.  Harrington, Robin A.; Brown, Becky J.; Reich, Peter B. 1989. Ecophysiol.        of exotic & native shrubs in s. WI. I. Rel. of leaf charac. resource        availability, & phenol. to seasonal patterns of carbon gain. Oecologia.        80: 356-367.  [9241]
  • 14.  Hunter, Carl G. 1989. Trees, shrubs, and vines of Arkansas. Little Rock,        AR: The Ozark Society Foundation. 207 p.  [21266]
  • 16.  Landin, Mary C. 1979. The importance of wetlands in the north central        and northeast United States to non-game birds. In: DeGraaf, Richard M.;        Evans, Keith E., compilers. Management of north central and northeastern        forests for nongame birds: Proceedings of the workshop; 1979 January        23-25; Minneapolis, MN. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-51. St. Paul, MN: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest        Experiment Station: 179-188.  [18087]
  • 17.  Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1979. Checklist of United States trees (native        and naturalized). Agric. Handb. 541. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service. 375 p.  [2952]
  • 18.  Medve, Richard J. 1984. The mycorrhizae of pioneer species in disturbed        ecosystems of western Pennsylvania. American Journal of Botany. 71(6):        787-794.  [8544]
  • 19.  Nixon, Charles M.; McClain, Milford W.; Russell, Kenneth R. 1970. Deer        food habits and range characteristics in Ohio. Journal of Wildlife        Management. 34(4): 870-886.  [16398]
  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2.  Brinkman, Kenneth A. 1974. Cornus L.  dogwood. In: Schopmeyer, C. S.,        technical coordinator. Seeds of woody plants in the United States.        Agric. Handb. 450. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture,        Forest Service: 336-342.  [7593]
  • 20.  Olson, Jerry S. 1958. Rates of succession and soil changes on southern        Lake Michigan sand dunes. Botanical Gazette. 119(3): 125-170.  [10557]
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 22.  Stickney, Peter F. 1989. Seral origin of species originating in northern        Rocky Mountain forests. Unpublished draft on file at: U.S. Department of        Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Fire        Sciences Laboratory, Missoula, MT; RWU 4403 files. 7 p.  [20090]
  • 23.  Smith, Albert J. 1975. Invasion and ecesis of bird-disseminated woody        plants in a temperate forest sere. Ecology. 56(1): 19-34.  [15667]
  • 24.  Strole, Todd A.; Anderson, Roger C. 1992. White-tailed deer browsing:        species preferences and implications for central Illinois forests.        Natural Areas Journal. 12(3): 139-144.  [19494]
  • 25.  Swan, Frederick R., Jr. 1970. Post-fire response of four plant        communities in south-central New York state. Ecology. 51(6): 1074-1082.        [3446]
  • 26.  Tester, John R. 1989. Effects of fire frequency on oak savanna in        east-central Minnesota. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 116(2):        134-144.  [9281]
  • 28.  Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States,        their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S.        Department of Agriculture. 362 p.  [4240]
  • 29.  Vogel, Willis G. 1981. A guide for revegetating coal minespoils in the        eastern United States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-68. Broomall, PA: U.S.        Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northeastern Forest        Experiment Station. 190 p.  [15577]
  • 3.  Buell, Murray F.; Facey, Vera. 1960. Forest-prairie transition west of        Itasca Park, Minnesota. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 87(1):        46-58.  [14171]
  • 30.  Voss, Edward G. 1985. Michigan flora. Part II. Dicots        (Saururaceae--Cornaceae). Bull. 59. Bloomfield Hills, MI: Cranbrook        Institute of Science; Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Herbarium.        724 p.  [11472]
  • 4.  Chapman, William K.; Bessette, Alan E. 1990. Trees and shrubs of the        Adirondacks. Utica, NY: North Country Books, Inc. 131 p.  [12766]
  • 5.  Dalke, Paul D. 1941. The use and availability of the more common winter        deer browse plants in the Missouri Ozarks. Transactions, 6th North        American Wildlife Conference. 6: 155-160.  [17044]
  • 6.  Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. 1988. Trees of the southeastern        United States. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press. 322 p.        [12764]
  • 8.  Gill, David S.; Marks, P. L. 1991. Tree and shrub seedling colonization        of old fields in central New York. Ecological Monographs. 61(2):        183-205.  [14486]
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville. External link.
  • Cornaceae of North America Update
  • Correll, D. S. & M. C. Johnston. 1970. Man. Vasc. Pl. Texas i–xv, 1–1881. The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson. External link.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York. External link.
  • Gleason, H. A. & A. J. Cronquist. 1991. Man. Vasc. Pl. N.E. U.S. (ed. 2) i–910. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx. External link.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Choripetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 2. 655 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York. External link.
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2013. Illinois Wildflowers. World Wide Web electronic publication., version 06/2013.
    See: Botanical Terminology and Line DrawingsEcological TerminologyWebsite DescriptionLinks to Other WebsitesReference Materials
  • Hilty, J. Editor. 2014. Insect Visitors of Illinois Wildflowers.  World Wide Web electronic publication., version (03/2014) 
    See:   Abbreviations for Insect ActivitiesAbbreviations for Scientific ObserversReferences for behavioral observations
  • Image metadata at Bioimages ( External link.
  • Marticorena C & R Rodríguez . 1995-2005. Flora de Chile. Vols 1, 2(1-3). Ed. Universidad de Concepción, Concepción. 351 pp., 99 pp., 93 pp., 128 pp. Matthei O. 1995. Manual de las malezas que crecen en Chile. Alfabeta Impresores. 545 p.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2013). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Apr 2011). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 11th March 2013 (Roskov Y., Kunze T., Paglinawan L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Culham A., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Hernandez F., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Reading, UK.
  • Radford, A. E., H. E. Ahles & C. R. Bell. 1968. Man. Vasc. Fl. Carolinas i–lxi, 1–1183. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. External link.
  • Schwegman, J. E. 1991. The Vascular Flora of Langham Island, Kankakee County, Illinois. Erigenia 11: 1–8. External link.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1979. Dicotyledoneae (Loasaceae to Compositae). Part 4. 1117–1711 pp. In Fl. Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa. External link.


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