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Overview

Brief Summary

Sea buckthorn is best known when its bright orange berries ripen in late summer. Sometimes, you can even smell a sour odor given off by the berries. Migrating birds are attracted to these berries, which are rich in vitamin C. The berries are ripe just in time for these birds and provide them with extra energy to fly further. Brown-tail moths use sea buckthorn as a food plant for their caterpillars. It's not unusual to find cocoons from these hairy insects built around one or more branches. Sea buckthorn grows in soils rich in calcium. In the Netherlands, that means relatively younger dunes. The plant is found from Western Europe through to China.
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Gansu, Hebei, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, N and SE Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, India, Kashmir, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan; SW Asia, Europe].
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs or trees, 1-15(-18) m tall. Bark brownish green, yellowish brown, or black; branches many, spines 2-7 cm. Leaves alternate; petiole ± absent; leaf blade abaxially silvery white suffused with brown or yellow, adaxially dark grayish green, linear or linear-lanceolate, 2-8 × 0.2-0.8 cm, ± narrowed at base, abaxially with white and brown stellate scales, margin ± revolute, apex subobtuse. Male inflorescence a minute spike, 5-8 × 4-6 mm. Male flowers: calyx lobes greenish brown, ovate-orbicular, 3-4 × 3-3.5 mm, concave, outside with numerous brown and sparse white stellate scales; stamens 1/2-2/3 as long as calyx; anthers nearly sessile, oblong-linear, ca. 1.5 mm. Female flowers 2-5 in axils of branchlets; pedicels ca. 0.5 mm, to 5 mm in fruit; calyx brown, tubular, oblong-obovate, 2.5-4 × 1-1.5 mm, outside with stellate brown and few white scales, lobes obtuse, interior with rather long white hairs, dense in upper part; Ovary globose-ovoid, 1-2 mm, ca. 1/2 as long as calyx, glabrous; style ca. 0.5 mm; stigma oblong, 0.5-1 mm, exserted. Peduncle 1-7 mm. Fruit orange or reddish, globose, ovoid, globose-ovoid, or ellipsoid, terete, 4-9(-10) × 3-8 mm, glabrous, succulent and aromatic. Endocarp easy to separate from seed. Seed dark brown, sometimes nearly black, glossy, ovoid-oblong, or oblong-ellipsoid, 4-7 × 1.5-2 or 4-5 mm. Fl. Apr-May, fr. Sep-Oct. 2n = 24*.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Elaeagnus rhamnoides (Linnaeus) A. Nelson; Rhamnoides Hippophae Moench.
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Ecology

Habitat

River banks and terraces, dry river beds, forest margins, thickets on mountain slopes, moraines, meadows at highest elevations; 600-4200 m.
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Associations

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Anomoia purmunda feeds within fruit of Hippophae rhamnoides
Remarks: Other: uncertain

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
small, scattered, covered, rather prominent, finally erumpent, pallid then black stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora hippophaes is saprobic on dead, epidermis blackened twig of Hippophae rhamnoides
Remarks: season: 4-11

Plant / associate
fruitbody of Geastrum fimbriatum is associated with Hippophae rhamnoides
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, with epidermis raised to form small bumps pseudothecium of Lepteutypa hippopha is saprobic on dead branch of Hippophae rhamnoides
Remarks: season: 8-9

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Phellinus hippopha parasitises live branch of Hippophae rhamnoides
Other: sole host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Hippophae rhamnoides

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Hippophae rhamnoides

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread as a native plant in Europe and Asia, according to USDA GRIN database.

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Wikipedia

Hippophae rhamnoides

243 Hippophae rhamnoides.jpg

Hippophae rhamnoides, common sea-buckthorn, is a species of flowering plant in the family Elaeagnaceae, native to fixed dunes and sea cliffs in Europe and Asia. It is a spiny deciduous shrub.

Description and biology[edit]

H. rhamnoides can grow 2–4 m (7–13 ft) high. The leaves are alternate, narrow and lanceolate, with silvery-green upper faces. It is dioecious, which means that the male and female flowers grow on different shrubs. The male inflorescence is built up of four to six flowers without petals. The female inflorescence consists normally of only one flower without petals and contains one ovary and one ovule. Male plants need to be planted near the female plants to allow fertilisation and fruit production. The oval or lightly roundish fruits grow in compact grapes varying from pale yellow to dark orange and weighing from 0.2 g to 1 g. The plant has a very developed root system that can maintain the soil on high slopes. The roots live in symbiosis with actinomycetes. This relationship permits fixation of nitrogen from the air. They also transform insoluble organic and mineral matters from the soil to more soluble states. The rhizomes sucker rapidly to produce new colonies.[1]

Taxonomy[edit]

The Greek rhamnoides means "resembling buckthorn".[2] As the buckthorns are in a different family, and the common name sea-buckthorn can refer to more than one species, it is preferable to refer to this plant by its unique Greek name.

Flowers of a male sea-buckthorn
Flowers of a female sea-buckthorn

Range[edit]

Hippophae rhamnoides is a native plant throughout Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to Spain and Asia to Japan and the Himalayas. It is grown as an agricultural plant in Germany,[3] France,[4] Finland, India and China. China is the largest agricultural producer.[5] The origin of the plant is Nepal and it migrated to other parts of Eurasia after the last Ice Age.

Cultivation[edit]

It is also cultivated as an ornamental plant in gardens and parks.[6]

Use[edit]

The fruits of sea buckthorn are used in a wide variety of products. Due to difficult harvest conditions and long ramp-up time of 6 to 8 years buckthorn is a relatively expensive raw material.

Food[edit]

Especially in France (southern Alps) sea buckthorn is commonly sold as fruit juice or as an ingredient in non-alcoholic and alcoholic mixed beverages. Other uses include the berries to be processed as fruit wine or into liquor as well as jam. Buckthorn tea is also made out of the fruits and originates from India.

The fruits have a very high vitamin C content, on average exceeding that of lemons and oranges.[7]

Use in the traditional medicine[edit]

H. rhamnoides fruits have been used in the traditional Austrian medicine internally as tea, juice, or syrup for treatment of infections, colds, and flu.[8]

Pharmacological activities[edit]

Various pharmacological activities such as cytoprotective, anti-stress, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, radioprotective, anti-atherogenic, anti-tumor, anti-microbial and tissue regeneration have been reported.[9]

Agricultural engineering[edit]

Buckthorn is resistant to wind and frost, tolerates salty soils and has a wide-reaching root system. It is often used to stabilize sandy locations and as a pioneering plant on regosols.[10]

Agricultural practices[edit]

Planting[edit]

Sea-buckthorn is normally planted as seedlings or sowed as seed in spring. It needs an adequate level of nutrients to produce a good yield and fruits of good quality. It responds well to phosphorus.[1] The yield depends on the exposure to light; it does not tolerate shadow. Plants are normally planted 1.o to 1.5 m apart in rows 3 to 6 m between each other. The density of the plantings varies from 500 to 3300 plants per ha.[1]

Plant protection[edit]

Relatively few diseases and insects are important on sea-buckthorn, but these are reported:

The disease verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium albo-atrum and Verticillium dahliae is widespread where sea-buckthorn is cultivated. The disease appears on trees five to eight years after planting. The infected fruits mature prematurely, dry up, and shrivel. Infected trees should be dug out and burned. For three to five years, it should not be planted at the same place. Fusarium wilt is another important disease in sea buckthorn. Fusarium spp. seems to only attack rotting and dying plants. Infected branches should be cut and burned.[11]

Also, some insects affect sea-buckthorn: aphids, thrips, two-spotted mites, and earwigs. Gall ticks, leaf rollers, gypsy moths, and comma-shaped scale also cause damage to sea-buckthorn.[11] The most damaging insect is the sea buckthorn fly. It penetrates the fruits and eats the flesh. The fruits are then unacceptable for use.[11]

Weed control[edit]

Weed control is important, especially during the early growth stages. Sea-buckthorn grows slower than weeds because it has a less vigorous root system. Weeds should be removed before planting and then controlled during the first four to five years. Mechanical and hand cultivation are both used for weed control. Cultivation should not be too deep so as to not damage the roots.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Rousseau, Hélène (2002). Développement des techniques de reproduction végétative et essais de cultivars d'argousiers. Québec: Institut de recherche et de développement en agroenvironnement. pp. 1–12. ISBN 2-922851-16-8. 
  2. ^ RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. ISBN 978-1-4053-3296-5. [page needed]
  3. ^ Information on cultivation of buckthorn in former East Germany (German)
  4. ^ Information on cultivation of buckthorn in Franche (fr)
  5. ^ Information on cultivation of buckthorn in China (fr)
  6. ^ "Hippophae rhamnoides". RHS Plant Finder. Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 27 July 2013. 
  7. ^ Hussain, Iqbal; Khan, Lajber; Marwat, Gul Akhtar; Ahmed, Nazir; Saleem, Muhammad (2008). "Comparative Study of Vitamin C Contents in Fruits and Medicinal Plants". Journal of the Chemical Society of Pakistan 30 (3): 406–9. 
  8. ^ Vogl, Sylvia; Picker, Paolo; Mihaly-Bison, Judit; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Atanasov, Atanas G.; Heiss, Elke H.; Wawrosch, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried et al. (2013). "Ethnopharmacological in vitro studies on Austria's folk medicine—An unexplored lore in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of 71 Austrian traditional herbal drugs". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 149 (3): 750–71. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2013.06.007. PMC 3791396. PMID 23770053. 
  9. ^ Suryakumar, Geetha; Gupta, Asheesh (2011). "Medicinal and therapeutic potential of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.)". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 138 (2): 268–78. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2011.09.024. PMID 21963559. 
  10. ^ Information on growing sea buckthorn from the University of Saskatchewan and the Saskatchewan Fruit Growers Association
  11. ^ a b c d Thomas, S.C. Li (2003). Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) : Production and Utilization. Canada: National Research Council of Canada. ISBN 0-660-19007-9. [page needed]
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Notes

Comments

Hippophae rhamnoides subsp. rhamnoides is found in coastal N Europe, from France and Ireland east to the E Baltic. There are a further three subspecies recognized from Europe and C and SW Asia.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Widespread in Eurasia; occasionally cultivated in U.S. and Canada, but rarely escaped in North America; reported as 'self-sown' near plantings in the British Isles (Jil Swearingen, e-mail 6Aug99; John Kartesz, 8/99 dataset and discussion 18Aug99). LEM 20Aug99.

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