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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America"
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Karnataka: S. Kanara Kerala: Idukki, Kannur, Thiruvananthapuram, Thrissur Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri, Salem"
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Tropical America, widely cultivated and naturalised elsewhere.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

‘Angels trumpet’ is a native of Brazil. Infrequently cultivated in the gardens here. The shrub can assume tree-like proportions (3-4.5m); the white sweet-scented drooping flowers are very large (20-28 cm long). Does well in the subhimalayan tracts.
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Elevation Range

1300-1700 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub/small tree
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Type Information

Isotype for Datura gardneri Hook.
Catalog Number: US 1066379
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): G. Gardner
Locality: Serra des Organ., Brazil, South America
  • Isotype: Hooker, W. J. 1846. Bot. Mag. 72: t. 4252.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: March-April.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Brugmansia suaveolens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Brugmansia suaveolens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Wikipedia

Brugmansia suaveolens

Brugmansia suaveolens, Brazil's white Angel Trumpet, is a South American species of flowering plants that grow as shrubs or small trees with large fragrant flowers.

Contents

Description [edit]

Brugmansia suaveolens is a semi-woody shrub or small tree, growing up to 3–5 m (10–16 ft) tall, often with a many-branched trunk. The leaves are oval, to 25 cm (10 in) long by 15 cm (6 in) wide, and even larger when grown in the shade. The flowers are remarkably beautiful and sweetly fragrant, about 24–32 cm (9–13 in) long and shaped like trumpets. The corolla body is slightly recurved to 5 main points, but the very peaks in the true species are always curved outwards, never rolled back, and these peaks are short, only 1–2.5 cm (0.4–1.0 in) long. The flowers are usually white but may be yellow or pink and hang downward from fully pendulous up to nearly horizontal.[1]

Taxonomy [edit]

First discovered by Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland, Brugmansia suaveolens was first formally described and published by Carl Ludwig Willdenow in 1809 as Datura suaveolens. In 1823, Friedrich von Berchtold and Jan Presl transferred these to Brugmansia suaveolens.[1] Local common names include Maikoa, Huanduc, Maikiua, Tompeta del jucio, Tsuaak, Toe, Wahashupa, Peji, Bikut, Ohuetagi, Ain-vai, Baikua, Canachiari, and Ishauna.[2][3] There are thousands of cultivated Brugmansia hybrids, and the majority have at least some B. suaveolens heritage.[4] Some of the more popular cultivars include 'Dr. Seuss', 'Frosty Pink' and 'Charles Grimaldi'.

Distribution and habitat [edit]

This Angel Trumpet was originally endemic to the coastal rainforests of south-east Brazil, where it grows below 1000 m (3500 ft) along river banks and forest edges with warm temperatures, high humidity, and heavy rainfall.[1] As a result of human interaction with this species, it can now be found growing in residential areas throughout much of South America; and occasionally in Central America, Mexico, and even in parts of Florida.[5]

Ecology [edit]

Fragrant in the evenings to attract pollinating moths, they hang half-closed during the day, but return to their peak again in the evenings.[1][6] Brugmansia have two main stages to their life cycle. In the initial vegetative stage the young seedling grows straight up on usually a single stalk, until it reaches its first main fork at 80–150 cm (2.5 to 5 ft) high. It will not flower until after it has reached this fork, and then only on new growth above the fork. Cuttings taken from lower vegetative region must also grow to a similar height before flowering, but cuttings from the upper flowering region will often flower at a very low height.[1]
One interesting example of plant/animal interaction involves the butterfly Placidula euryanassa, who uses Brugmansia suaveolens as one of its main larval foods. It has been shown that these can sequester the plant's tropane alkaloids and store them through the pupal stage on to the adult butterfly, where they are then used as a defense mechanism, making themselves less palatable to vertebrate predators.[7]

Brugmansia suaveolens
Pink flowered Brugmansia suaveolens

Uses [edit]

Many South American cultures use Brugmansia suaveolens ritually. The Ingano and Siona in the Putumayo region both use it as an entheogen. It is also used by some Amazonian tribes as an admixture to increase the potency of Ayahuasca.[8] The flowers and the seeds are traditionally used in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil, mixed in water and ingested for its analgesic-like effect.
Flower extracts have shown pain-killing (antinociceptive) activity in mice.[9] This antinociceptive activity may be related in part to benzodiazepine receptors.[10]

Culture [edit]

Brugmansia are grown as ornamentals outdoors year-round in non-freezing climates around the world. Like other large-leaved, fast-growing plants, they appreciate a little protection from the wind, as well as from the hottest afternoon sun. They like organically rich soil, frequent water, and heavy fertilizer when in full growth. Both woody and leafy tip cuttings are used to propagate Brugmansia, although thicker cuttings tolerate lower humidity. In northern climes they are often grown out in large containers and wintered over in non-freezing garages or basements.[1]

Toxicity [edit]

Every part of Brugmansia suaveolens is poisonous, with the seeds and leaves being especially dangerous.[11] As in other species of Brugmansia, B. suaveolens is rich in Scopolamine (hyoscine), hyoscyamine, atropine, and several other tropane alkaloids.[12] Effects of ingestion can include paralysis of smooth muscles, confusion, tachycardia, dry mouth, diarrhea, visual and auditory hallucinations, mydriasis, rapid onset cycloplegia, and death.[13][14][15]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Treated as Brugmansia suaveolens by Kartesz (1999); sometimes treated as Datura suaveolens.

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