Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Moist Deciduous Forests, Cultivated, Native of Tropical America"
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Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Moist Deciduous Forests
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Description

Evergreen or semi deciduous shrub or small tree. Flowers white, pale mauve or purple. The orange, berry-like fruits are borne in profusion and are poisonous. The branches are armed with spines.
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Derivation of specific name

erecta: erect
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Karnataka: Belgaum, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara"
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Maharashtra: Common throughout Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: All districts
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Naturalized in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Taiwan, Zhejiang [North and South America]
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Worldwide distribution

Native of Central America. It was originally introduced as a garden ornamental and is now widely naturalized in southern Africa, becoming an invasive pest in some areas.
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Distribution: A native of S. America and W. Indies, naturalized in many parts of tropical Africa, Asia and Australia.
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Central America, naturalised in India, Himalaya (Nepal), China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs, often climbing. Branches spiny, pubescent when young. Petiole ca. 1 cm, pubescent; leaf blade ovate to lanceolate, 2-6.5 X 1.5-3.5 cm, papery, base cuneate, margin entire to distally crenate, veins 6 pairs. Calyx pubescent on both surfaces. Corolla tube ca. 7 mm. Stamens included. Ovary glabrous. Drupes ca. 5 mm in diam., shorter than calyx, shiny, glabrous. Fl. and fr. May-Oct. 2n = 36.
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Description

Erect to subscandent, usually armed shrub. Leaves 1.5-5 cm long, 1-2 cm broad, obovate-elliptic, rarely oblong-lanceolate, serrate to entire, cuneate, very shortly petioled. Racemes laxly many flowered. Flowers 8-9 mm across, blue or violet, scented; bracts minute; pedicels 2-4 mm long. Calyx-tube c. 4 mm long, angular, teeth subulate, appressedly pubescent. Corolla-tube c. 8 mm long, limb subequally 5-lobed with lobes 3.5-4.5 mm long, pubescent on both sides. Drupe 6-8 mm in diameter, orange or orange-yellow, enclosed by the accrescent, beaked, persistent calyx.
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Elevation Range

200-1600 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Climber
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Synonym

Duranta repens Linnaeus.
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Ecology

Habitat

Usually cultivated or sometimes naturalized near farm houses; 200-400 m.
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Population Biology

Frequency

Common
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: almost throughout the year.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Duranta erecta

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Duranta erecta

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Duranta erecta

Skyflower redirects here.
Pigeon Berry redirects here. It may also refer to the subshrub Rivina humilis.

Duranta erecta is a species of flowering shrub in the verbena family Verbenaceae, native from Mexico to South America and the Caribbean. It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in tropical and subtropical gardens throughout the world, and has become naturalized in many places. It is considered an invasive species in Australia, China, South Africa and on several Pacific Islands. Common names include golden dewdrop, pigeon berry, and skyflower. In Mexico, the native Nahuatl name for the plant is xcambocoché.[1] In Tonga it is known as mavaetangi (tears of departure).

Description[edit]

Duranta erecta is a sprawling shrub or (infrequently) a small tree. It can grow to 6 m (20 ft) tall and can spread to an equal width. Mature specimens possess axillary thorns, which are often absent on younger specimens. The leaves are light green, elliptic to ovate, opposite, and grow up to 7.5 cm (3.0 in) long and 3.5 cm (1.4 in) broad, with a 1.5 cm petiole. The flowers are light-blue or lavender, produced in tight clusters located on terminal and axillary stems, blooming almost all year long. The fruit is a small globose yellow or orange berry, up to 11 mm (0.43 in) diameter and containing several seeds.[2] The leaves and berries of the plant are toxic, and are confirmed to have killed children, dogs and cats.[3] However, songbirds eat the fruit without ill effects.[4]

Taxonomy[edit]

The genus name is in honor of Castor Durantes, a fifteenth-century Italian botanist.[5] The specific epithet erecta means "upright" in Latin. The plant is also known as D. repens, from the Latin for "creeping". The latter name was originally used to identify smaller-leaved varieties of the species.[6]

Ecology[edit]

Duranta erecta is native to the Americas, from Mexico and the Caribbean south to Brazil and Argentina. There is some debate about whether the plant is also native to the southern United States, in Florida, Louisiana, Texas, Arizona and California, or is an introduced species there.[7] In its natural state, it commonly grows in rocky or sandy coastal areas with full sun, or moister, disturbed sites inland. Prior to maturity, the plant will grow at a rate of up to half a meter per year.

Cultivation[edit]

Golden dewdrop is widely grown as an ornamental plant throughout tropical and warm subtropical regions.[4] Its showy flowers and fruit make it a desirable addition to gardens, and the blossoms attract butterflies and hummingbirds.[4] There are a wide variety of cultivars available, including 'alba', 'aurea', 'Aussie gold', 'gold mound', 'geisha girl', 'sapphire showers', and 'variegata'.[8]

Invasive potential[edit]

The plant has been identified as an environmental weed in Australia, South Africa, and China,[9] and is described as invasive in Hawaii, Fiji and French Polynesia.[10] It has been introduced to other habitats but has not become invasive.

References[edit]

  1. ^ O’Gorman, Helen. Mexican Flowering Trees and Plants. publisher:Ammex Associados, 1961
  2. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening 2: 117. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  3. ^ Thompson, N (2007). Poisonous Plants in Australia: Enabling consumers to buy safe plants (PDF). WWF-Australia. p. 10. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  4. ^ a b c Francis, John K. "Duranta erecta". United States Forest Service. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  5. ^ "Duranta erecta". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  6. ^ Culbert, D. F. "Add drops of Gold to Florida Yards". University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  7. ^ Christman, Steve (October 26, 2003). "Floridata: Duranta erecta". Floridata. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  8. ^ Culbert, D. F. "Duranta cultivars". University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  9. ^ "Global Compendium of Weeds: Duranta repens". Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 
  10. ^ "Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk: Duranta erecta". Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project. Retrieved 2008-12-11. 

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Notes

Comments

Medicinal, ornamental.
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Comments

It is commonly cultivated as an hedge plant almost throughout Pakistan.
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