Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This native perennial plant is 3-7' tall and usually unbranched. The central stem is light green and glabrous, except where the whorls of leaves of occur, where it is slightly swollen and purple. There are 3-4 leaves in each whorl along the stem. The leaves are about 6" long and 3½" across, or sometimes larger; they are broadly lanceolate or ovate and serrated along the margins. Each leaf is dull green and hairless on the upper surface; the lower surface is hairless or finely pubescent. The foliage may be vanilla-scented, although this varies with the local ecotype. The central stem terminates in one or more panicles of compound flowers that are bunched together; this inflorescence is usually more dome-shaped than flat-topped. Unlike the central stem, the stalks of the inflorescence are sometimes finely pubescent. Each compound flower consists of 5-8 disk florets and several overlapping series of bracts at its base. There are no ray florets. The corolla of each disk floret is whitish pink to purplish pink; it is tubular in shape and has 5 tiny teeth along its upper rim. A divided white style is strongly exerted from each disk floret. The floral bracts are pale pink and oblong. The blooming period occurs from mid-summer to early fall and lasts about a month. Each floret is replaced by a bullet-shaped achene with a small tuft of hair. These achenes are dispersed by the wind. The root system is shallow and fibrous.
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Comments

Sweet Joe-Pye Weed is one of the taller wildflowers in wooded areas. It is often found in habitats that are more shady and dry than other Eupatoriadelphus spp. (Joe-Pye Weeds) in the state. To identify a Joe-Pye Weed, it is helpful to examine the central stem
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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Range and Habitat in Illinois

Sweet Joe-Pye Weed occurs occasionally in most areas of Illinois, except for a few counties in SE Illinois and elsewhere in the state, where it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include open woodlands, savannas, woodland borders, thickets, partially shaded seeps, and partially shaded riverbanks. This plant can survive in wooded areas that are somewhat degraded. However, populations have a tendency to decline when the shade of overhead canopy trees becomes too dense.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatoriadelphus purpureus (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob.:
China (Asia)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Eupatorium purpureum L.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 30–200 cm. Stems usually dark purple at nodes, usually otherwise greenish, rarely purplish green, usually solid, rarely ± hollow near bases, glabrous proximally, ± glandular-puberulent distally and among heads. Leaves mostly in 3s–4s(–5s); petioles 5–15(–20) mm, glabrous or sparingly puberulent, rarely ciliate; blades pinnately veined, lance-ovate or ovate to deltate-ovate, mostly (7–)9–26(–30) × (2.5–)3–15(–18) cm, bases abruptly or gradually tapered, margins coarsely serrate, abaxial faces sparingly and minutely gland-dotted and densely pubescent to glabrate, adaxial faces sparingly puberulent and glabrescent or glabrous. Heads in loose, convex, compound corymbiform arrays. Involucres often purplish, 6.5–9 × 2.5–5 mm. Phyllaries usually glabrous, sometimes sparsely hairy. Florets (4–)5–7(–8); corollas usually pale pinkish or purplish, 4.5–7 mm. Cypselae 3–4.5 mm.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Eupatorium purpureum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 838. 1753; Eupatoriadelphus purpureus (Linnaeus) R. M. King & H. Robinson
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Type Information

Type collection for Eupatorium harnedii E.S. Steele in Harned
Catalog Number: US 592350
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Harned
Year Collected: 1909
Locality: Oakland., Garrett, Maryland, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Steele, E. S. 1931. Wild Fl. Alleghenies. 501.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

Sweet Joe-Pye Weed occurs occasionally in most areas of Illinois, except for a few counties in SE Illinois and elsewhere in the state, where it is uncommon or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include open woodlands, savannas, woodland borders, thickets, partially shaded seeps, and partially shaded riverbanks. This plant can survive in wooded areas that are somewhat degraded. However, populations have a tendency to decline when the shade of overhead canopy trees becomes too dense.
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Sweet Joe-Pye Weed in Illinois

Eupatoriadelphus purpureus (Sweet Joe-Pye Weed)
(Also known as Eupatorium purpureum; bees suck nectar or collect pollen; bee flies suck nectar, while other flies usually feed on pollen; beetles feed on pollen; other insects suck nectar; one observation is from Hilty, while the remaining observations are from Robertson and Graenicher as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn fq (Rb, Gr); Apidae (Bombini): Bombus affinis sn (Gr), Bombus auricomus sn, Bombus impatiens sn fq, Bombus pensylvanica sn cp (Gr), Bombus ternarius sn (Gr), Bombus vagans sn cp (Gr); Anthophoridae (Ceratini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn (Gr); Anthophoridae (Eucerini): Melissodes agilis sn, Melissodes bimaculata bimaculata sn, Melissodes rustica sn cp (Gr); Anthophoridae (Xylocopini): Xylocopa virginica sn (Gr); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Megachile centuncularis sn (Gr), Megachile latimanus sn cp (Gr), Megachile pugnatus sn (Gr)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Halictus confusus sn cp (Gr)

Wasps
Sphecidae (Bembecinae): Bembix americana (Gr); Sphecidae (Sphecinae): Ammophila procera, Prionyx atrata (Gr), Sphex pensylvanica (Gr); Vespidae: Polistes carolina

Flies
Bombyliidae: Exoprosopa fasciata sn (Rb, Gr), Exoprosopa fascipennis sn (Gr), Poecilanthrax halcyon sn (Gr), Systoechus vulgaris sn (Rb, Gr); Conopidae: Physocephala marginata (Gr); Syrphidae: Epistrophe emarginata (Gr), Eristalis arbustorum (Gr), Eristalis tenax (Gr), Toxomerus geminatus (Gr), Toxomerus marginatus (Gr), Volucella vesicularia fp; Muscidae: Stomoxys calcitrans (Gr)

Butterflies
Nymphalidae: Boloria bellona (Gr), Boloria selene myrina (Gr), Chlosyne nycteis, Danaus plexippus (Rb, Gr, H), Limenitis archippus (Gr), Nymphalis antiopa (Gr), Phyciodes tharos (Gr), Polygonia comma (Gr), Speyeria cybele (Gr), Vanessa atalanta (Gr), Vanessa virginiensis (Rb, Gr); Pieridae: Colias philodice (Rb, Gr), Pieris rapae (Rb, Gr), Pontia protodice; Lycaenidae: Lycaena hyllus (Gr); Papilionidae: Battus philenor, Papilio glaucus

Skippers
Hesperiidae: Poanes hobomok (Gr), Poanes hobomok pocohantas (Gr), Polites origenes (Gr), Polites peckius, Staphylus hayhurstii

Moths
Arctiidae: Utetheisa bella (Gr); Noctuidae: Anagrapha falcifera (Gr), Feltia jaculifera (Gr), Mamestra sp. (Gr), Mythimna unipuncta (Gr); Sesiidae: Cisseps fulvicollis (Gr), Synanthedon tipuliformis (Gr)

Beetles
Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica undecimpunctata (Gr)

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Faunal Associations

The flower nectar attracts primarily long-tongued bees, butterflies, skippers, and moths. Bee visitors include Bombus spp. (Bumblebees), Melissodes spp. (Miner bees), and Megachile spp. (Large Leaf-Cutting bees). Some bees also collect pollen. The caterpillars of various moths feed on Eupatoriadelphus spp. (Joe-Pye Weeds), including Carmenta bassiformis (Eupatorium Borer Moth), Emmelina monodactyla (Plume Moth sp.), Perigea xanthoides (Red Groundling), and Schinia trifasciata (Three-Lined Flower Moth). The Swamp Sparrow eats the seeds of various Joe-Pye Weeds to a limited extent.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Cultivation

The preference is light shade to partial sun, moist to mesic conditions, and a rich loamy soil. The leaves will turn an unattractive yellowish green in the presence of strong sunlight.
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Wikipedia

Eutrochium purpureum

Eutrochium purpureum (Eupatorium purpureum (Linnaeus) E. E. Lamont), Kidney-root,[1] Sweetscented Joe-Pie weed, Sweet Joe-Pye weed, Gravel Root, or Trumpet weed is a herbaceous perennial plant native to northwest, [2]eastern and central North America.[3]

E. Purpureum is a clump forming plant that grows to 1.5 – 2.4 meters (5 – 8 feet) tall and about 1.2 meters (4 ft) wide. Plants are found in full sun to part shade in moisture retentive to wet soils. Stems are upright, thick, round, and purple, with whorls of leaves at each node. As the plant begins to bloom the stems often bend downward under the weight of the flowers. The leaves grow to 30 cm (12 in) long and have a somewhat wrinkled texture. The purplish colored flowers are produced in large loose, convex shaped compound corymbiform arrays. Plants bloom mid to late summer and attract much activity from insects that feed on the nectar produced by the flowers. This species hybridizes readily with other species of Eutrochium and where this species and those species overlap in distribution the resulting plants can be difficult to resolve to a specific taxon.[4] There are two varieties that differ in the pubescence of the stems and foliage, but many more have been proposed in the past, thought most authorities now accept that this is a variable species and population variations integrate.

E. purpureum is sometimes cultivated and has escaped from cultivation in parts of New Zealand.[5]

Flowers and leaves of Eupatorium purpureum
Eupatorium purpureum1.jpg

References[edit]

  1. ^ Blanchan, Neltje (2005). Wild Flowers Worth Knowing. Project Gutenberg Literary Archive Foundation. 
  2. ^ memoirs of John Charles Fremont, p.226ISBN 0-8154-1164-2
  3. ^ "Botanica. The Illustrated AZ of over 10000 garden plants and how to cultivate them", p 359. Könemann, 2004. ISBN 3-8331-1253-0
  4. ^ Eutrochium purpureum in Flora of North America @ efloras.org
  5. ^ Webb, C.J.; Sykes, W.R.; Garnock-Jones, P.J. (First electronic edition, Landcare Research, June 2004). "Eupatoriadelphus purpureus". Flora of New Zealand. Retrieved 2008-01-28. 
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Notes

Comments

Eutrochium purpureum is morphologically variable and is known to hybridize with all other species in the genus (E. E. Lamont 1995). Historically, more than a dozen infraspecific taxa have been recognized; the extent of intergradation and the lack of correlation among varying traits tend to make recognition of more than two varieties impractical.
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