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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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introduced; Fla.; Mexico; native to West Indies; Central America; South America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees , evergreen, to 12 m. Roots adventitious, aerial. Bark grayish to brown, smooth. Branchlets grayish, smooth. Leaves: stipules 0.7-0.9 cm; petiole 0.2-1 cm. Leaf blade elliptic to obovate, 2-8 × 1-4 cm, base usually acute or cuneate to nearly obtuse, margins entire, apex acute, obtuse, or short-apiculate; surfaces abaxially and adaxially glabrous; basal veins 1(-2) pairs; lateral veins 6-14 pairs, not uniformly spaced. Syconia paired, red, not spotted, globose, 3-7 mm diam., glabrous; peduncles 2-5 mm; subtending bracts 2, basally connate, ovate, 1-1.5 mm; ostiole ca. 1 mm wide, subtended by 3 bracts, bracts ca. 1 mm, not umbonate.
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Type Information

Isotype for Ficus grenadensis Warb. in Urb.
Catalog Number: US 796161
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. F. A. von Eggers
Year Collected: 1889
Locality: Mt. St. Catherine, near Plaisance., Lesser Antilles, Grenada, West Indies
Elevation (m): 600 to 600
  • Isotype: Warburg, O. 1903. Symb. Antill. 3: 481.
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Syntype for Ficus sintenisii Warb.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. Sintenis
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Sierra de Naguabo ad Rio Blanco, Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico, West Indies
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Syntype for Ficus sintenisii Warb.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. Sintenis
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Sierra de Naguabo ad Rio Blanco, Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico, West Indies
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Syntype for Ficus sintenisii Warb.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. Sintenis
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Sierra de Naguabo ad Rio Blanco, Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico, West Indies
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Syntype for Ficus sintenisii Warb.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. Sintenis
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Sierra de Naguabo ad Rio Blanco, Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico, West Indies
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Syntype for Ficus sintenisii Warb.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. Sintenis
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Sierra de Naguabo ad Rio Blanco, Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico, West Indies
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Syntype for Ficus sintenisii Warb.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. Sintenis
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Sierra de Naguabo ad Rio Blanco, Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico, West Indies
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Syntype for Ficus sintenisii Warb.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): P. Sintenis
Year Collected: 1886
Locality: Sierra de Naguabo ad Rio Blanco, Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico, West Indies
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Isotype for Ficus gleasonii Standl.
Catalog Number: US 1123054
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. S. de la Cruz
Year Collected: 1922
Locality: Upper Mazaruni River., Guyana, South America
  • Isotype: Standley, P. C. 1937. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Bot. Ser. 17: 170.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Disturbed thickets; 0-10m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering all year.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ficus sintenisii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ficus eugeniaefolia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ficus sintenisii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ficus americana

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: According to Little (1964), known only from Puerto Rico. Also reported from Panama by PA-CDC.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LR/lc
Lower Risk/least concern

Red List Criteria

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s
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Wikipedia

Ficus americana

Ficus americana, commonly known as the West Indian laurel fig,[3] or Jamaican cherry fig[4] is a tree in the family Moraceae which is native to the Caribbean, Mexico in the north, through Central and South America south to southern Brazil. It is an introduced species in Florida, USA. The species is variable; the five recognised subspecies were previously placed in a large number of other species.

Description[edit]

Ficus americana is a shrub or tree which grows up to 30 m (100 ft) tall.[5]

Taxonomy[edit]

With about 750 species, Ficus (Moraceae) is one of the largest angiosperm genera. (David Frodin of Chelsea Physic Garden ranked it as the 31st largest genus.)[6] Ficus americana is classified in the subgenus Urostigma (the strangler figs) and the section Americana.[1] Recent molecular phylogenies have shown that subgenus Urostigma is polyphyletic, but have strongly supported the validity of section Americana as a discrete group (although its exact relationship to section Galoglychia is unclear).[7]

Both Aublet and Linnaeus published descriptions of this species in 1775, basing them on an illustration of Charles Plumier's published posthumously in Plantarum americanarum, quas olim Carolus Plumierus detexit(Amsterdam, 1755–1760). There is uncertainty was to which version was published first; since the first-published description has priority, there was confusion as to which was the proper name for the species—F. americana Aubl. or F. perforata L. To resolve this, Cornelis Berg proposed in 2003 that Aublet's name be conserved over Linnaeus', since it was more widely used.[8] This proposal was accepted "after lengthy discussion".[9]

Five subspecies are currently recognised: F. americana Aubl. subsp. americana, F. americana Aubl. subsp. andicola (Standl.) C.C. Berg, F. americana Aubl. subsp. greiffiana (Dugand) C.C. Berg, F. americana Aubl. subsp. guianensis (Desv.) C.C. Berg, and F. americana Aubl. subsp. subapiculata (Miq.) C.C. Berg.[1]

Reproduction[edit]

Figs have an obligate mutualism with fig wasp (Agaonidae); figs are only pollinated by fig wasps, and fig wasps can only reproduce in fig flowers. Generally, each fig species depends on a single species of wasp for pollination. The wasps are similarly dependent on their fig species in order to reproduce.

Figs in section Americana of subgenus Urostigma are pollinated by wasps in the genus Pegoscapus. Pegoscapus clusiifolidis was described from Ficus clusiifolia[10] (a synonym of F. americana). Another study refers to P. insularis as the pollinator of F. perforata [11] (another synonym of F. americana). That study also found that P. insularis represented a cryptic species complex.[11]

Distribution[edit]

Ficus americana is found throughout the Caribbean, from the Bahamas south to Trinidad and Tobago. It occurs in Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Brazil.[1] It has been introduced to Florida, USA and has escaped from cultivation.[3]

Ecology[edit]

Figs are sometimes considered to be potential keystone species in communities of fruit-eating animals; their asynchronous fruiting patterns may cause them to be important fruit sources when other food sources are scarce.[12] At Tinigua National Park in Colombia Ficus americana was an important fruit producer during periods of fruit scarcity in two of three years. This led Colombian ecologist Pablo Stevens to consider it a potential keystone species at that site.[13]

The interaction between figs and fig wasps is especially well-known (see section on reproduction, above). In addition to their pollinators, Ficus species are exploited by a group of non-pollinating chalcidoid wasps whose larvae develop in its figs. Both pollinating and non-pollinating wasps serve as hosts for parasitoid wasps.[14] In addition to Pegoscapus pollinators, non-pollinating wasps belonging to the genera Heterandrium, Aepocerus and Idarnes were found in F. americana figs in Brazil.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Berg, C.C. (2007). "Proposals for treating four species complexes in Ficus subgenus Urostigma section Americanae (Moraceae)". Blumea 52 (2): 295–312. doi:10.3767/000651907X609034. 
  2. ^ Berg notes: "The quality of the types for [these] names ... is such that their identity remains uncertain."
  3. ^ a b "Ficus americana Aublet, Hist. Pl. Guiane. 952. 1775.". Flora of North America. eFloras.org. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  4. ^ USDA, NRCS. "Ficus americana Aubl.". The PLANTS Database. National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. Retrieved 2008-07-05. 
  5. ^ DeWolf, Gordon P., Jr. 1960. Ficus (Tourn.) L. In Lorin I. Nevling, Jr., Flora of Panama. Part IV. Fascicle II. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 47 (2):81–203
  6. ^ Frodin, David G. (2004). "History and concepts of big plant genera". Taxon 53 (3): 753–76. doi:10.2307/4135449. JSTOR 4135449. 
  7. ^ Rønsted, N.; Weiblen, G. D.; Clement, W. L.; Zerega, N. J. C.; Savolainen, V. (2008). "Reconstructing the phylogeny of figs (Ficus, Moraceae) to reveal the history of the fig pollination mutualism". Symbiosis 45 (1–3): 45–56. 
  8. ^ Berg, Cornelis C. (May 2003). "(1587–1590) Proposals to conserve the names Ficus citrifolia against F. caribaea, F. maxima with a conserved type, F. aurea against F. ciliolosa, and F. americana against F. perforata (Moraceae)". Taxon 52 (2): 368–370. doi:10.2307/3647421. JSTOR 3647421. 
  9. ^ Brummitt, R.K. (November 2005). "Report of the Committee for Spermatophyta: 57". Taxon 54 (4): 1093–1103. doi:10.2307/25065499. JSTOR 25065499. 
  10. ^ a b Schiffler, Gustavo; Celso Oliviera Azevedo; Ricardo Kawada (2002). "Agaonidae (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea) associados a sicônios de Ficus clusiifolia (Moraceae) da restinga de Três Praias, Guarapari, Espírito Santo, Brasil". Boletim do Museu de Biologia Mello Leitao 14: 5–12. 
  11. ^ a b Molbo, Drude; Carlos A. Machado; Jan G. Sevenster; Laurent Keller; Edward Allen Herre (2003). "Cryptic species of fig-pollinating wasps: Implications for the evolution of the fig–wasp mutualism, sex allocation, and precision of adaptation". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100 (10): 5867–72. doi:10.1073/pnas.0930903100. PMC 156293. PMID 12714682. 
  12. ^ Terborgh, John (1986). "Keystone plant resources in the tropical forests". In Michael E. Soulé (ed.). Conservation Biology: The Science of Scarcity and Diversity. Sunderland, Massachusetts: Sinauer Associates. pp. 330–344. ISBN 978-0-87893-795-0. 
  13. ^ Stevenson, Pablo (2005). "Potential Keystone Plant Species for the Frugivore Community at Tinigua Park, Colombia". In J. Lawrence Dew and Jean Philippe Boubli (eds.). Tropical Fruits and Frugivores: The Search for Strong Interactors. Springer Netherlands. pp. 37–57. doi:10.1007/1-4020-3833-X. ISBN 978-1-4020-3833-4. 
  14. ^ Kjellberg, Finn; Emmanuelle Jousselin, Martine Hossaert-McKey, Jean-Yves Rasplus (2005). "Biology, ecology and evolution of fig-pollinating wasps (Chalcidoidea, Agaonidae)". In A. Raman, Carl W. Schaefer, Toni M. Withers (eds.). Biology, Ecology, and Evolution of Gall-inducing Arthropods. Enfield (NH) USA, Plymouth, UK: Science publishers, Inc. pp. 539–572. ISBN 978-1-57808-262-9. 
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Ficus mathewsii

Ficus mathewsii is a species of plant in the Moraceae family. It is found in Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Peru, and Venezuela.

References


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Notes

Comments

The name Ficus perforata Linnaeus (Pl. Surin., 17. 1775) is an illegitimate name, based on the same type collection as F . americana Aublet. Ficus americana is locally escaped from cultivation.
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