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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

This introduced biennial plant is 2-5' tall and little branched, except occasionally near the base during the second year. During the first year, this plant consists of a low-growing rosette of basal leaves up to 1' across. These basal leaves are narrowly ovate or oblanceolate and dark green. Their margins are smooth and vertically undulate, sometimes even crinkly-edged, while their upper surface is hairless and shiny. The hairless round stems of plants during the second year have fine longitudinal veins that are dark green. The alternate leaves are up to 5" long and ¾" across, becoming smaller as they ascend the stems. They are narrowly ovate or oblong-linear in shape and more or less sessile against the stems, otherwise their appearance is similar to the basal leaves. The stems terminate in spike-like racemes of yellowish green flowers about ½–2' long. The flowers are densely distributed in all directions along the length of the racemes.  Each flower is ¼" or less across, consisting of 4 white petals (usually), 3-4 green sepals, 12-25 stamens with large yellow anthers, and a green capsule in the middle with 3-4 divided valves. The upper petal is larger than the lower petals (when they are present) and it has 3-6 slender lobes, while the lower petals have 3 slender lobes. These lobes provide the petals with a frilly appearance. There is some variability in the structure of the flowers, even on the same plant. The blooming period occurs from late spring to early summer and lasts about 1-2 months. The 3 or 4 valves of the ripened seed capsule become pointed at the top and split apart, releasing small flattened seeds that are reddish brown and orbicular-reniform (kidney-shaped, but nearly round). The root system consists of a stout taproot. This plant spreads by reseeding itself. Sometimes it forms colonies.
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Naturalized, Native of Eurasia"
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© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

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"Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri"
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Distribution in Egypt

Nile and Mediterranean region.

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© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Global Distribution

Europe, Mediterranean region, Southwest and Central  Asia.

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Distribution: SW. & C. Europe, SW. & C. Asia, N. Africa and Eastern USA.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

An annual or a biennial, 45-75 cm tall. Stem striate, glabrous, fistular when old. Leaves 3-8.5 cm long, 5-12 mm broad, linear to oblong-lanceolate, entire. Flowers yellow, in spicate racemes, 10-26 cm long; bract c. 3 mm long, up to 4 mm in fruit, lanceolate, persistent, margin membranous. Sepals 4, c. 4 mm long, ovate to oblong, persistent. Posterior petal 5-10-fid; appendage c. 1/3 the size of the petal, 2-nerved. Filaments persistent. Capsule 3-5 mm long, erect, subglobose, with 3 prominent stigmatic lobes. Seeds c. 1 mm long, glabrous, brownish-black, glossy.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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© India Biodiversity Portal

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Cercospora anamorph of Cercospora resedae causes spots on live leaf of Reseda luteola

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Ceutorhynchus resedae feeds on Reseda luteola

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora crispula parasitises live leaf of Reseda luteola

Foodplant / open feeder
imago of Phyllotreta nodicornis grazes on leaf of Reseda luteola

Foodplant / saprobe
erumpent pseudothecium of Pleospora ambigua is saprobic on dead stem of Reseda luteola
Remarks: season: 6

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious, partly immersed, black pycnidium of Rhabdospora coelomycetous anamorph of Rhabdospora phomatoides is saprobic on dead, locally bleached stem of Reseda luteola
Remarks: season: 9

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl.Per.: May June.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Reseda luteola

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Reseda luteola

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 10
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, moist to slightly dry conditions, and soil that contains fertile loam, clay, or coarse gravelly material. Calcareous soil with a high pH is tolerated. Second-year plants develop very quickly during the spring and can reach an impressive size by early summer. Range & Habitat
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© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

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Wikipedia

Reseda luteola

Reseda luteola is a plant species in the genus Reseda. Common names include dyer's rocket, dyer's weed, weld, woold, and yellow weed.[1] A native of Eurasia, the plant can be found in North America as an introduced species and common weed.

While other resedas were used for the purpose, this species was the most widely used source of the natural dye known as weld. The plant is rich in luteolin, a flavonoid which produces a bright yellow dye.[2] The yellow could be mixed with the blue from woad (Isatis tinctoria) to produce greens such as Lincoln green.[2] The dye was in use by the first millennium BC, and perhaps earlier than either woad or madder. Use of this dye came to an end at the beginning of the twentieth century, when cheaper synthetic yellow dyes came into use.[3] France exported large quantities of weld.[1]

It prefers waste places. Good weld for dye must have flowers of a yellow or greenish color, and abound in leaves; that which is small, thin-stemmed, and yellow is better than that which is large, thick-stemmed, and green; that which grows on dry, sandy soils is better than that produced on rich and moist soils. For the greatest production of coloring matter, the plant should be cut before the fruits show much development, otherwise the pigment diminishes. Dye from weld serves equally for linen, wool, and silk, dyeing with proper management all shades of yellow, and producing a bright and beautiful color.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Wikisource-logo.svg "Weld". New International Encyclopedia. 1905. 
  2. ^ a b Flora of North America
  3. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 209
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Notes

Comments

‘Dyers weed’ is an adventive plant and not very common here. Native to Europe, where it grows in waste places and is also cultivated for the use of a yellow dye, luteolin.
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