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Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Euonymus europaea L.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Euonymus europaeus L.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

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Ecology

Associations

Plant / associate
adult of Aneurus avenius is associated with dead twig of Euonymus europaeus

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Plant / epiphyte
fruitbody of Antrodia albida grows on small, decorticated, fallen branch of Euonymus europaeus

Foodplant / sap sucker
Aphis fabae sucks sap of stem of Euonymus europaeus
Remarks: season: winter
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
gregarious pycnidium of Ascochyta coelomycetous anamorph of Ascochyta euonymella is saprobic on twig of Euonymus europaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Auricularia auricula-judae is saprobic on wood of Euonymus europaeus

Foodplant / mobile cased feeder
larva of Cryptocephalus coryli grazes in mobile case on fallen leaf of Euonymus europaeus
Remarks: captive: in captivity, culture, or experimentally induced

Foodplant / saprobe
thickly crowded, covered, finally protruding pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Diaporthe circumscripta is saprobic on twig (thin) of Euonymus europaeus
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / gall
Eriophyes convolvens causes gall of leaf margin of Euonymus europaeus

Foodplant / parasite
mostly hypophyllous conidial anamorph of Erysiphe euonymi parasitises live leaf of Euonymus europaeus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes is saprobic on dead wood of Euonymus europaeus
Remarks: season: mainly winter

Foodplant / parasite
pycnium of Melampsora epitea var. epitea parasitises live leaf of Euonymus europaeus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Peniophora lycii is saprobic on dead, fallen stick of Euonymus europaeus
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
fruitbody of Phylloporia ribis parasitises live trunk of Euonymus europaeus
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
scattered pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta euonymi causes spots on leaf of Euonymus europaeus
Remarks: season: 9

Foodplant / spot causer
acervulus of Septogloeum coelomycetous anamorph of Septogloeum carthusianum causes spots on live leaf of Euonymus europaeus

Foodplant / saprobe
fruitbody of Terana caerulea is saprobic on dead, decayed wood of Euonymus europaeus
Other: minor host/prey

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Euonymus europaeus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Euonymus europaeus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 18
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Wikipedia

Euonymus europaeus

Euonymus europaeus (spindle, European spindle, common spindle) is a species of flowering plant in the family Celastraceae, native to much of Europe, where it inhabits the edges of forest, hedges and gentle slopes, tending to thrive on nutrient-rich, chalky and salt-poor soils. It is a deciduous shrub or small tree. Other names include fusoria, fusanum, ananbeam, shemshad rasmi (Iran).

Description[edit]

Close-up of a ripe fruit of Euonymus europaeus, with the bright orange seeds

Euonymus europaeus grows to 3–6 m (10–20 ft) tall, rarely 10 m (33 ft), with a stem up to 20 cm (8 in) in diameter. The leaves are opposite, lanceolate to elliptical, 3-8 cm long and 1-3 cm broad, with a finely serrated edge. Leaves are dark green in summer. Fall color ranges from yellow-green to reddish-purple, depending on environmental conditions. [1]

The hermaphrodite flowers are produced in late spring and are insect-pollinated; they are rather inconspicuous, small, yellowish green and grow in cymes of 3-8 together. The capsular fruit ripens in autumn, and is red to purple or pink in colour and approximately 1-1.5 cm wide. When ripe, the four lobes split open to reveal the orange seeds.

Cultivation and uses[edit]

It is a popular ornamental plant in gardens and parks due to its bright pink or purple fruits and attractive autumn colouring, in addition to its resistance to frost and wind. It has been introduced to North America where it has become an invasive species in some areas. The cultivar 'Red Cascade' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[2]

European spindle wood is very hard, and can be cut to a sharp point; it was used in the past for making wool spindles.

Parts of the plant have been used medicinally.[3] However, the fruit is poisonous, containing, amongst other substances, the alkaloids theobromine and caffeine, as well as an extremely bitter terpene. Poisonings are more common in young children, who are enticed by the brightly coloured fruits. Ingestion can result in liver and kidney damage and even death[citation needed].

Synonyms[edit]

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Dirr, Michael A. 1998. Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, 5th edi
  2. ^ "Euonymus europaeus 'Red Cascade' AGM". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 26 July 2013. 
  3. ^ Plants for a Future: Euonymus europaeus
  4. ^ Tela Botánica
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The spelling 'Euonymus' (rather than the original 'Evonymus') for the genus name has been nomenclaturally conserved (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, Tokyo edition, 1994, p. 260), which also makes clear (by citing the name of the type species as E. europaeus) that the gender of the genus name is masculine. This usage is followed here, contrary to Kartesz checklist (1994). Most 20th-century botanical and floristic works use the 'Euonymus' spelling. Further discussion of the gender of this genus name is provided by J. Paclt, Taxon 47: 473-474, 1998. LEM 18Jan95 & 3Jun98.

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