The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2005. eFloras: Flora of China
  • 2011. Lamiales of North America Update
  • A General History of the Dichlamydeous Plants 4: 60. 1837. (Gen. Hist.)
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • Botanical Magazine 43: t. 1785. 1816. (Bot. Mag.)
  • Botanical Register; consisting of coloured . . . 6: pl. 436. 1820. (Bot. Reg.)
  • Nasir, E. & S. I. Ali (eds). 1980-2005. Fl. Pakistan Univ. of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Perrier de la Bathie, H. 1952. Oleacees. Fl. Madagasc. 166: 1–85.
  • Small, J. K. 1933. Man. S.E. Fl. i–xxii, 1–1554. Published by the Author, New York.
  • Species Plantarum. Editio quarta 1(1): 37. 1797. (Sp. Pl.)
  • Standley, P. C. & L. O. Williams. 1969. Oleaceae. In Standley, P. C. & L. O. Williams (eds.), Flora of Guatemala - Part VIII, Number 4. Fieldiana, Bot. 24(8/4): 264–275.


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