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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Cultivated, Native of Mediterranean Region"
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Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats & Eastern Ghats, Moist Deciduous to Evergreen Forests, Naturalized also Cultivated"
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: Although not very common, it is cultivated in our gardens. Species native to Arabia, but widely cultivated throughout the tropics.

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"Kerala: Kollam, Kozhikode, Thiruvananthapuram Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Dindigul, Salem, Tirunelveli, Viluppuram"
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Tamil Nadu: Dindigul
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Distribution in Egypt

Gebel Elba.

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SW Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang, Yunnan [Bhutan, India, Kashmir, Nepal, Tajikistan]
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Distribution: Mediterranean, Caucasus, Northern Persia, Eastern Afghanistan, Hindukush, India, Pakistan, China.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs, sometimes twining or seeking support. Branches long, weak, sparsely hairy when young. Leaves 5-10 cm long, opposite, imparipinnate, petiole and midrib narrowly margined; leaflets 3-7, upper surface slightly pubescent, especially on midrib and margins, lateral leaflets acute or apiculate, sessile or subsessile, the upper pair sometimes with broad connate bases, terminal much larger, ovate or lanceolate, acuminate. Flowers fragrant, 1-10 in subumbellate terminal, often leafy cymes; pedicels up to 2 cm. Bracts linear, c. 5 mm long. Calyx teeth linear, 5-10 mm long, puberulous. Corolla white, tube 1-2 cm long, lobes 4-5, oblong, shorter than the tube, more or less involute at the margins. Berry black when ripe, elliptic or globose, 8-10 mm long, full of crimson juice.
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Description

Shrubs scandent, 0.4-5 m. Branchlets angular or grooved, glabrous, sparsely pubescent, or appressed hairy. Leaves opposite, pinnatipartite or pinnately compound, often simple at base of branchlets; petiole 0.4-4 cm, glabrous or appressed hairy; leaflets 3-9, glabrous or sparsely pubescent with appressed hairs; terminal leaflet ovate to narrowly elliptic, 0.5-4.5 × 0.2-2 cm, base cuneate, apex acute or acuminate, rarely obtuse; lateral ones ovate to elliptic or suborbicular, 0.3-3 cm × 2-13 mm, base rounded or cuneate, apex acute or obtuse. Cymes umbellate or subumbellate, terminal or rarely axillary, 1-10-flowered; bracts linear, 1-10 mm. Flowers heterostylous. Pedicel 0.4-2.5 cm. Calyx cupular, 1-3 mm, glabrous or sparsely pubescent with appressed hairs; lobes subulate-linear, (3-)5-10 mm. Corolla white, sometimes red outside; tube 1-1.5(-2) cm; lobes 5, narrowly ovate to oblong, 6-12 mm. Berry ripening dark red, becoming purple, globose or ellipsoid, 7-10 × 5-9 mm.
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Diagnostic Description

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Diagnostic

Habit: Climbing Shrub
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Diagnostic

Habit: Climbing Shrub
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Ecology

Habitat

Valleys, ravines, thickets, woods, along rivers, meadows; 1800-4000 m.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / saprobe
very loosely gregarious, subepidermal stroma of Cytospora coelomycetous anamorph of Cytospora jasmini is saprobic on dead, locally darkened twig (thin) of Jasminum officinale
Remarks: season: 4-5

Foodplant / saprobe
pycnidium of Phoma coelomycetous anamorph of Phoma domestica is saprobic on dead Jasminum officinale

Foodplant / saprobe
rather closely scattered, often in rows, covered then tearing throug irregularly pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis jasmini is saprobic on dead branch of Jasminum officinale
Remarks: season: 4-9

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: May July. Fruit : September-November.
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Life Expectancy

Perennial.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Jasminum officinale

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 5
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Wikipedia

Jasminum grandiflorum

Jasminum grandiflorum, also known variously as the Spanish jasmine, Royal jasmine, Catalonian jasmine, among others[1] (chambeli in Urdu) is a species of jasmine native to South Asia (Nepal, Kashmir, and northern Pakistan), the Arabian peninsula (Oman, Saudi Arabia), Northeast Africa (Eritrea, Ethiopia, Djibouti, Somalia, Sudan), the African Great Lakes (Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda), and the Yunnan and Sichuan regions of China. The species is widely cultivated and is reportedly naturalized in République de Guinée, the Maldive Islands, Mauritius, Réunion, Java, the Cook Islands, Chiapas, Central America, and much of the West Indies.[2]

Description[edit]

It is a scrambling deciduous shrub growing to 2–4 m tall. The leaves are opposite, 5–12 cm long, pinnate with 5–11 leaflets. The flowers are produced in open cymes, the individual flowers are white having corolla with a basal tube 13–25 mm long and five lobes 13–22 mm long.[3][4] The flower's fragrance is unique and sweet.

Subspecies[edit]

Two subspecies are recognized:[2]

  • Jasminum grandiflorum subsp. grandiflorum - South Asian plants as well as cultivars and naturalized populations

Uses[edit]

In India, its leaves are widely used as an Ayurvedic herbal medicine and its flowers are used to adorn the coiffure of women. In Pakistan, it grows wild in the Salt Range and Rawalpindi District at 500–1500 m altitude.[3] It is closely related to, and sometimes treated as merely a form of, Jasminum officinale.[7] The plant is known as "saman pichcha" or "pichcha" in Sri Lanka. Buddhist and Hindu temples use these flowers in abundance.

It is widely cultivated as an ornamental plant in warm temperate and subtropical regions.

By method of solvent extraction the Jasmine flowers are converted into Jasmine Concrete and Jasmine Oleoresin (sold as Jasmine Absolute). Both products have a huge demand in the fragrance industry.

Methyl jasmonate isolated from the jasmine oil of Jasinum gradiflorum led to the discovery of the molecular structure of the jasmonate plant hormones.[8]

In Herbal remedies[edit]

It is popular as an alternative to standard western allopathic medicine for a variety of problems, including cancer (specially of the bone, lymph nodes and breast) stress relief, anxiety as well as depression. It is an effective remedy for various ailments and this natural holistic approach to health is becoming more and more popular, but should not replace conventional medicine or prescription drugs. Note that is no validated, peer-reviewed science that attests to any of these benefits:

  • Stress relief
  • anxiety
  • tension
  • exhaustion
  • easing depression
  • dry skin
  • calming
  • conjuctivitis and dermatitis
  • cancer (bone, lymph nodes, breast)
  • headaches.
  • Used in Protein Conditioner - Softness & Shine

References[edit]

  1. ^ ARS-GRIN.gov article
  2. ^ a b Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Jasminum grandiflorum
  3. ^ a b Flora of Pakistan: Jasminum grandiflorum
  4. ^ Flora of China v 15 p 313: Jasminum grandiflorum
  5. ^ Green, Peter Shaw. 1986. Kew Bulletin 41: 414.
  6. ^ Fresenius, Johann Baptist Georg Wolfgang. 1837. Museum Senckenbergianum. Abhandlungen aus dem Gebiete der Beschreibenden Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Frankfurt am Main 2: 16.
  7. ^ Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  8. ^ Demole E (1962). "Isolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasminIsolement et détermination de la structure du jasmonate de méthyle, constituant odorant caractéristique de l'essence de jasmin". Helv Chim Acta 45: 675–85. doi:10.1002/hlca.19620450233. 
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Jasminum officinale

flower close up
floral wreath of jasmine shrubs representing the shield of Pakistan

Jasminum officinale, known as the common jasmine or just jasmine, is a species of flowering plant in the olive family Oleaceae, native to the Caucasus, northern Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, the Himalayas, Tajikistan, India, Nepal and western China (Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang (Tibet), Yunnan). The species is widely cultivated in many places, and is reportedly naturalized in France, Italy, Portugal, Romania, the former Yugoslavia, Algeria, Florida and the West Indies.[1]

It is also known as poet's jasmine or jessamine, and is particularly valued by gardeners throughout the temperate world for the intense fragrance of its flowers in summer. It is also the national flower of Pakistan.

Description[edit]

Jasminum officinale is a vigorous, twining, deciduous climber with sharply pointed pinnate leaves and clusters of starry, pure white flowers in summer, which are the source of its heady scent.[1]

Garden history[edit]

Jasminum officinale is so ancient in cultivation that its country of origin, though somewhere in Central Asia, is not certain.[2] H.L. Li, The Garden Flowers of China,[3] notes that in the third century CE, jasmines identifiable as J. officinale and J. sambac were recorded among "foreign" plants in Chinese texts, and that in ninth-century Chinese texts J. officinale was said to come from Byzantium. Its Chinese name, Yeh-hsi-ming is a version of the Persian and Arabic name.[4]

Its entry into European gardens was most likely through the Arab-Norman culture of Sicily, but, as the garden historian John Harvey has said, "surprisingly little is known, historically or archaeologically, of the cultural life of pre-Norman Sicily".[5] In the mid-14th century the Florentine Boccaccio in his Decameron describes a walled garden in which "the sides of the alleys were all, as it were, walled in with roses white and red and jasmine; insomuch that there was no part of the garden but one might walk there not merely in the morning but at high noon in grateful shade."[6] Jasmine water also features in the story of Salabaetto in the Decameron.[7] Jasminum officinale, "of the household office" where perfumes were distilled, was so thoroughly naturalized that Linnaeus thought it was native to Switzerland.[8] As a garden plant in London it features in William Turner's Names of Herbes, 1548.

Double forms, here as among many flowers, were treasured in the 16th and 17th centuries.

Cultivars[edit]

Numerous cultivars have been developed for garden use, often with variegated foliage. The cultivar 'Argenteovariegatum'[9] has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Medical uses[edit]

Jasminum officinale is also used as an essential oil in aromatherapy. It is specifically used in dermatology as either an antiseptic or anti-inflammatory agent.[10] Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum is a folk medicine used for the treatment of hepatitis in south of China. It has shown anti-viral activity in vitro.[11] The effect of an aqueous extract of fresh floral buds of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum Linn. has been studied on female fertility in rats. The extract produced a significant decrease in serum progesterone levels.[12]

Jasmine absolute is known as the 'King of Oils', and its heavy, sweet scent is loved by most people. The flowers release their perfume at dusk, so flowers are picked at night and a tiny amount of oil is obtained by solvent extraction. The result is a very expensive oil, but it can be used in low concentrations so it is not that uneconomic to use it in products.

The aroma of jasmine is described as calming and soothing without being soporific, and is indicated for depression and stress - as well as some respiratory conditions. It is indicated for sensitive skin conditions too. But mostly jasmine has a reputation as an aphrodisiac and used for all kinds of sexual problems.

Safety: This oil can cause irritation in some people if used too frequently or in high concentrations, so use with caution, preferably in low concentrations. A major component of jasmine is benzyl acetate (~25%) which is known to be absorbed through the skin and known to be an allergic sensitiser. Those who show allergies to spicy food, perfumes and cosmetics are most likely to react. However, the power of the scent is such that only tiny amounts are required anyway. Jasmine is also an emmenagogue and therefore should not be used during pregnancy.[13]

Culture[edit]

Symbolism[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b RHS A-Z encyclopedia of garden plants. United Kingdom: Dorling Kindersley. 2008. p. 1136. ISBN 1405332964. 
  2. ^ Alice M. Coats, Garden Shrubs and Their Histories (1964) 1992, s.v. "Jasminum".
  3. ^ Li, The Garden Flowers of China, 1959, noted in Coats (1964) 1992.
  4. ^ Coats (1964) 1992.
  5. ^ John Harvey, Mediaeval gardens (1981:48).
  6. ^ Boccaccio, Decameron, third day.
  7. ^ "They then took from the basket silver vases of great beauty, some of which were filled with rose water, some with orange water, some with jasmine water, and some with lemon water, which they sprinkled upon them".
  8. ^ Noted in Coats (1964) 1992.
  9. ^ "RHS Plant Selector - Jasminum officinale 'Argenteovariegatum'". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 20 May 2013. 
  10. ^ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 2049. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0. 
  11. ^ Zhao G., Yin Z., Dong J. ,"Antiviral efficacy against hepatitis B virus replication of oleuropein isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2009 125:2 (265-268)
  12. ^ Iqbal M., Ghosh A.K.M., Saluja A.K. "Antifertility activity of the floral buds of Jasminum officinale Var. grandiflorum in rats" Phytotherapy Research 1993 7:1 (5-8)
  13. ^ P. Joy and D.P. Raja. "Antibacterial activity studies of Jasminum grandiflorum and Jasminum sambac." Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 481-483. 2008. http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1094&context=ebl

Guizhou, Sichuan, Xizang (Tibet), Yunnan

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Notes

Comments

Common in termperate forests, hilly tracts of the northern regions. Frequently found with Jasminum humile. Eaten by grazing animals.
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