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DescriptionYellow archangel is a perennial herbaceous groundcover native to Europe. Grown as an ornamental in Europe, it has now escaped in several states in the mid-Atlantic as well as the mid-west and west coast. It has been found growing in gardens as far north as Newfoundland, Canada. It favors deeply shady, moist habitats like floodplains, stream banks and wet areas, but it can grow in rock gardens in full sun. It has not (yet) been reported to be highly invasive over large areas, rather localized in small monocultures in natural areas adjacent to gardens or where garden waste may have been deposited. Yellow archangel may have upright stems or long groundcovering vines. The opposite, variegated silver and green leaf is persistent, oval shaped, and pubescent with large teeth on the margin. Showy yellow flowers are present April through June in shade or sun on upright stems (1-2 ft.). It spreads by root fragments or numerous seed. Hand pulling control methods were not effective, as even small root fragments efficiently and vigorously resprouted. A dense newspaper/mulch blanket can work in small areas. Effective control has been obtained with triclopyr although care must be used to avoid desirable species. Small populations should be eradicated when found as area of coverage can expand rapidly in fertile soil.