Overview

Brief Summary

Description

Yellow archangel is a perennial herbaceous groundcover native to Europe. Grown as an ornamental in Europe, it has now escaped in several states in the mid-Atlantic as well as the mid-west and west coast. It has been found growing in gardens as far north as Newfoundland, Canada. It favors deeply shady, moist habitats like floodplains, stream banks and wet areas, but it can grow in rock gardens in full sun. It has not (yet) been reported to be highly invasive over large areas, rather localized in small monocultures in natural areas adjacent to gardens or where garden waste may have been deposited. Yellow archangel may have upright stems or long groundcovering vines. The opposite, variegated silver and green leaf is persistent, oval shaped, and pubescent with large teeth on the margin. Showy yellow flowers are present April through June in shade or sun on upright stems (1-2 ft.). It spreads by root fragments or numerous seed. Hand pulling control methods were not effective, as even small root fragments efficiently and vigorously resprouted. A dense newspaper/mulch blanket can work in small areas. Effective control has been obtained with triclopyr although care must be used to avoid desirable species. Small populations should be eradicated when found as area of coverage can expand rapidly in fertile soil.

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Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / miner
larva of Amauromyza labiatorum mines leaf of Lamiastrum galeobdolon

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Meligethes atramentarius feeds on Lamiastrum galeobdolon

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Meligethes haemorrhoidalis feeds on Lamiastrum galeobdolon

Foodplant / feeds on
larva of Meligethes kunzei feeds on Lamiastrum galeobdolon

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
Neoerysiphe galeopsidis parasitises live Lamiastrum galeobdolon

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia lamii var. lamii causes spots on live leaf of Lamiastrum galeobdolon

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lamiastrum galeobdolon

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lamiastrum galeobdolon

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Lamium galeobdolon

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lamium galeobdolon

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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Wikipedia

Lamium galeobdolon

Lamium galeobdolon, commonly known as yellow archangel, artillery plant, or aluminium plant, is a widespread wildflower in Europe, and has been introduced elsewhere as a garden plant. It displays the asymmetric flower morphology, opposite leaves, and square stems typical of the mint family, Lamiaceae. The flowers are soft yellow and borne in axial clusters, with a prominent 'hood' (the dorsal lobe of the corolla). It spreads easily and so has been commonly used as an ornamental ground cover. It can be invasive in places where it is not native and caution must be taken when planting in these areas. [2]

Description[edit]

Yellow archangel is a large-leaved perennial plant with underground runners growing to a height of about 40 to 80 cm (16 to 31 in). The paired opposite leaves are stalked, broadly ovate with a cordate base and toothed margin. The underside of the leaves is often purplish. The flowers grow in whorls in a terminal spike. The calyx is five-lobed. The corolla is yellow, 15 to 25 mm (0.6 to 1.0 in) long, the petals fused with a long tube and two lips. The upper lip is hooded and the lower lip has three similar-sized lobes with the central one being triangular and often streaked with orange. There are two short stamens and two long ones. The carpels are fused and the fruit is a four-chambered schizocarp.[3]

Taxonomy[edit]

There are a number of closely related taxa which hybridize with L. galeobdolon and in some cases are not unequivocally accepted as distinct species but considered subspecies or varieties by many authors.[citation needed] Most well-known among these is variegated yellow archangel (subsp. argentatum), whose leaves often have variegation, showing as silver patches arranged as a wide semicircle. This, and in particular its large-flowered and even stronger-marked cultivar 'variegatum', is the taxon most often met with as a garden escapee.

Subspecies[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "USDA GRIN Taxonomy". 
  2. ^ "Aluminium Plant". Biosecurity New Zealand. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  3. ^ "Yellow archangel: Lamium galeobdolon". NatureGate. Retrieved 2013-12-14. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Exotic to the U.S. (David Snyder, NJHP, at the Eastern Heritage Conf. Nov/94).

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