Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Riparian, Evergreen Forests"
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub
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Distribution

"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg Karnataka: Belgaum, Chikmagalur, Coorg, Hassan, Mysore, N. Kanara, Shimoga, S. Kanara Kerala: All districts Tamil Nadu: Dindigul, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli"
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"
Global Distribution

South East Asia

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Melastoma malabathricum L.:
Burma (Asia)
Cambodia (Asia)
India (Asia)
Japan (Asia)
Laos (Asia)
Nepal (Asia)
Philippines (Asia)
Thailand (Asia)
United States (North America)
Vietnam (Asia)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Melastoma polyanthum Burm. f.:
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, India, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; Pacific islands].
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrubs 0.5-1(-5) m tall, erect. Stems 4-sided to subterete; branchlets numerous, procumbent, densely covered with appressed scales. Petiole 0.5-1.9 cm; leaf blade ovate, elliptic, or elliptic-lanceolate, 4-14 × 1.7-3.5(-6) cm, stiffly papery, abaxially densely strigose and puberulous, adaxially densely strigose, secondary veins 2(or 3) on each side of midvein, tertiary veins numerous and parallel, base rounded to subcordate, margin entire, apex acuminate. Inflorescences subcapitate corymbose, terminal, 3-7-flowered, with 2 leaflike bracts at base. Pedicel 2-8(-10) mm, strigose, apically 2-bracteolate, bracteoles lanceolate to subulate, 2-5 mm, abaxially densely strigose, margin ciliate. Hypanthium 5-9 mm, densely compressed strigose, margin fimbriate. Calyx lobes lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate, on both sides and along their margin squamosly strigose and pubescent. Petals reddish purple, 2-3(-4) cm, margin only ciliate, apex rounded. Longer stamens with connective long extended at base, curved, apex bifid. Shorter stamens with anthers 2-tuberculate at base; connective not extended. Ovary half inferior, densely strigose, apically with a ring of setae. Fruit urceolate-globular, 6-15 × 6-12 mm, succulent, densely squamose strigose. Fl. Feb-Aug, fr. Jul-Dec.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Shrubs to 1.3 m tall; stem densely covered with paleaceous pectinate hairs. Leaves 4-11 x 1.5-4 cm, elliptic-oblong, base attenuate, apex acute, upper surface prominently lineolate; lower surface tomentose, 5-ribbed, drying dull-greenish; petiole to 1.5 cm long. Flowers solitary or few in rather dense clusters, c. 5 cm across; bracts 1.2-2 x 1-1.4 cm, boat-shaped, densely paleaceous hairy. Calyx tube 0.7-1 cm long, campanulate; lobes 5, 5-7 x 4-5 mm, ovate-lanceolate, densely paleaceous hairy. Petals 5, reddish purple, 1.5-2 x 0.7 - 1 cm, obovate. Stamens 10, alternating ones large and small; anthers dimorphic, dehiscence by apical pores. Ovary ovoid, 5-locular; ovules many; style simple. Capsules 1-1.5 x 0.8-1 cm, ovoid, irregularly dehiscent. Seeds many, minute."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Synonym

Melastoma affine D. Don; M. candidum D. Don; M. cavaleriei H. Léveillé & Vaniot; M. esquirolii H. Léveillé; M. malabathricum subsp. normale (D. Don) K. Meyer; M. normale D. Don; M. polyanthum Blume.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Stream banks and marshy areas
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Open fields, grasslands, scrub, thickets, sparse forests, bamboo forests, trailsides; 100-2800 m.
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General Ecology

An early-succession plant in abandoned land that was formerly cultivated.

"... one of the first bushes to appear in the waste fields of lalang grass, where the seeds are dropped by pigeons and bulbuls." (Ridley 1930)
  • HN Ridley (1930) The dispersal of plants throughout the world. London: L. Reeve.
  • RT Corlett (1991) Plant succession on degraded land in Singapore. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 4(2): 151-161.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: Throughout the year
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Conservation

Conservation Status

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Melastoma malabathricum

Melastoma malabathricum, known also as Malabar Melastome, Indian Rhododendron and Singapore Rhododendron (Malay: Senduduk; Thai: โคลงเคลงขี้นก, Khlong khelng khi nok)[1] is a flowering plant in the family Melastomataceae.

It is present in Indonesia, Japan, Burma, Cambodia, Laos, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. It is usually found between 100 and 2,800 m on grasslands and sparse forests.[2] It has been declared a noxious weed in the United States.[3]

This plant has been used as a medicinal plant in certain parts of the world.[4]

M. malabathricum is a known hyperaccumulator of aluminium, and as such can be used for phytoremediation.[5]

Taxonomy[edit]

The taxonomy of the genus Melastoma requires a complete revision.[6] Early genetics studies were published from 2001,[7] through to recently,[8] but a revision based on them has yet to be. In 2001 Karsten Meyer proposed a revision in which the species Melastoma affine and other species were subsumed within this species M. malabathricum.[9]

In Australia, currently most authorities do not accept this; instead the naturally occurring populations in Western Australia, Northern Territory, Queensland and north eastern New South Wales remain recognised as M. affine,[10][11] except by authorities in Queensland.[12][13] Australian populations which occur as weeds, having different flowers, for example in Warraroon Reserve, Lane Cove, Sydney, further south than the natural distribution of M. affine, are introduced plants of this M. malabathricum L. species.[14]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Malabar Melastome
  2. ^ Melastoma malabathricum - Flora of China
  3. ^ Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
  4. ^ Melastoma malabathricum (L.) Smith Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological Properties
  5. ^ Distribution and chemical speciation of aluminum in the Al accumulator plant, Melastoma malabathricum L. By Toshihiro Watanabe, Mitsuru Osaki, Teruhiko Yoshihara and Toshiaki Tadano. In journal “Plant and Soil”. Ed. Springer Netherlands, Volume 201, Number 2 / April, 1998. pp. 165-173. ISSN 0032-079X (Print) 1573-5036 (Online). DOI 10.1023/A:1004341415878.
  6. ^ Whiffin, Trevor (1990). "Melastoma" (online version). Flora of Australia: Volume 18: Podostemaceae to Combretaceae. Flora of Australia series. CSIRO Publishing / Australian Biological Resources Study. p. 247–248. ISBN 978-0-644-10472-2. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  7. ^ Clausing, G.; Renner, Susanne S. (2001). "Molecular phylogenetics of Melastomataceae and Memecylaceae: implications for character evolution". American Journal of Botany 88 (3): 486–498. Retrieved 19 June 2013.  – see also the erratum.
  8. ^ Michelangeli, Fabián A.; Guimaraes, Paulo J. F.; Penneys, Darin S. et al. (2013). "Phylogenetic relationships and distribution of New World Melastomeae (Melastomataceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 171 (1): 38–60. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2012.01295.x. ISSN 1095-8339. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  9. ^ Meyer, Karsten (2001). "Revision of the Southeast Asian genus Melastoma (Melastomataceae)". Blumea 46 (2): 351–398. 
  10. ^ "Melastoma%". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), Integrated Botanical Information System (IBIS) database (listing by % wildcard matching of all taxa relevant to Australia). Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  11. ^ Wilson, Peter G. (July 2001). "Melastoma affine D.Don – New South Wales Flora Online". PlantNET - The Plant Information Network System. 2.0. Sydney, Australia: The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  12. ^ Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A. et al. (Dec 2010). "Factsheet – Melastoma malabathricum subsp. malabathricum". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, through its Division of Plant Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  13. ^ Bostock, P.D.; Holland, A.E., eds. (2010). Census of the Queensland Flora 2010. Brisbane: Queensland Herbarium, Department of Environment and Resource Management. p. 101. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  14. ^ Hosking, J. R.; Conn, B. J.; Lepschi, B. J.; Barker, C. H. (2011). "Plant species first recognised as naturalised or naturalising for New South Wales in 2004 and 2005". Cunninghamia 12 (1): 85–114. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
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Melastoma polyanthum

Melastoma polyanthum is a species of shrubs, of the plant family Melastomataceae. It widely distributed across Southeast Asia through to Australia, where it occurs mainly near the coasts of the north and east of the country.[3] Common names include Lasiandra, Blue Tongue,[3] Straits Rhododendron and Chinese Wild Peony. Its fruits are edible though staining the mouth black, and the leaves and sap are used in herbal medicine.

Description[edit]

M. polyanthum is a shrub, to 2.5 metres.[4] The leaves are opposite, elliptical, coarsely hairy, with three longitudinal veins. The 8 mm petiole too is hairy. The bark is gray and scaly. The flowers are purple, to 8 cm, with yellow stamens. There are 5 petals.[5][4]

Distribution[edit]

M. polyanthum is found in Southeast Asia including Vietnam[6] Borneo, Papua New Guinea, New Hebrides, and Australia.[4]

Uses[edit]

The plant is used to make grass jelly (cincau perdu) in Indonesia. The fruits ripen to dark gray, and contain an edible purple pulp around the seeds. It stains the mouth black (hence the name of the genus).[5][4]

Sap or an extract from the leaves is used as a herbal medicine against a number of conditions including diarrhoea, burns, ulcers, wounds, piles and thrush in Indonesia and the Solomon Islands.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Melastoma polyanthum Blume". IPNI. 2005. Retrieved 2 Jan 2013. 
  2. ^ Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A. et al. (Dec 2010). "Factsheet – Melastoma malabathricum subsp. malabathricum". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, through its Division of Plant Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved 16 Mar 2013. 
  3. ^ a b "Melastoma affine". Atlas of Living Australia. Australian Government. Retrieved 2 Jan 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Wiart, Christophe (2006). Medicinal Plants of Asia And the Pacific. CRC Press. pp. 140–141. ISBN 978-0849372452. 
  5. ^ a b "Melastoma polyanthum". Retrieved 2 Jan 2013. 
  6. ^ "Melastoma polyanthum Blume". Missouri Botanical Garden. 2013. Retrieved 2 Jan 2013. 
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