Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Herbs pale yellow-brown, rather fleshy, becoming brown when dry, usually pubescent on upper part of inflorescence. Inflorescence racemose, 2-11-flowered, 5-30 cm tall, 1-5 mm in diameter below lowermost flower, emerging from soil in nodding position. Inflorescence bracts below soil level shorter and thicker and more densely crowded on axis than upper bracts. Inflorescence bracts above soil level, sessile, ± erect, ovate to oblong, 7-15 mm long, 3-15 mm wide, rather fleshy, somewhat pubescent to glabrous, margin entire or erose to irregularly toothed, apex acute to acuminate. Flowers nodding, tubular-campanulate. Bracts 1, rarely to 3, similar to inflorescence bracts in size and shape. Sepals 3-5, occasionally absent, oblong to broadly elliptic, 6-10 mm long, 2-5 mm wide, shorter than petals, base attenuate, margin irregularly toothed, apex acute or acuminate. Petals 4-6, oblong, 1–1.5 cm long, 3-6 mm wide, abaxially finely pubescent, adaxially long pubescent, base saccate, margin entire and irregularly denticulate or erose in upper part, apex acute or rounded. Stamens 8-12; filaments 7-14 mm, pubescent; anthers hippocrepiform, short, 0.8-1.5 mm, opening by a solitary terminal slit over connate sacs. Ovary 4-8 mm, 3-6 mm in diameter at anthesis, placentae axile; style 2-10 mm, ca. as long as ovary, slender, pubescent, articulation between style and ovary conspicuous. Stigma yellow, funnelform, 1.5-3 mm in diameter, often subtended by a ring of short hairs, usually pubescent. Nectary at base of ovary with 8-10 paired lobes directed downward between staminal bases opposite saccate bases of petals. Capsules erect, broadly ellipsoid, 6-10 mm long, 4-8 mm wide in diameter.
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Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hypopitys americana (DC.) Small:
United States (North America)
Canada (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hypopitys lanuginosa (Michx.) Nutt.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Monotropa hypopitys L.:
Burma (Asia)
United States (North America)
Canada (North America)
China (Asia)
Thailand (Asia)
South Korea (Asia)
Russian Federation (Asia)
Pakistan (Asia)
Nepal (Asia)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Japan (Asia)
India (Asia)
Bhutan (Asia)
Mongolia (Asia)
Afghanistan (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Monotropa latisquama (Rydb.) Hultén:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hypopitys monotropa Crantz:
China (Asia)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hypopitys insignata E.P. Bicknell:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Hypopitys fimbriata (A. Gray) Howell:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, W Hubei (Shennongjia), Hunan, Jilin, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, N Sichuan (Barkam), Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan [Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Sikkim, Thailand; SW Asia, Europe, North America, Central America (Mexico)].
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Monotropa hypopitys is occurring in Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, W Hubei, Hunan, Jilin, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shanxi, N Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan of China, Afghanistan, Bhutan, India, Japan, Kashmir, Korea, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Russia, Sikkim, Thailand, SW Asia, Europe, North America, Central America.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Common from the piedmont north but known from only a few stations in GA, AL, and FL south of the piedmont. In the Neotropics, found in Mexico and Guatemala, growing in forests of Pinus, Abies, and Quercus at elevations of 1800-4000 m.

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Distribution: Like the last species it is found in forests rich in moist humus. Widely distributed in Asia, Europe, Siberia, Japan, Canada and Mexico.
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Europe, Himalaya (Kashmir to Bhutan), Khasia, Assam, Thailand, China, Siberia, Japan, N. & C. America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs pale yellow-brown, rather fleshy, becoming brown when dry, usually pubescent on upper part of inflorescence. Inflorescence racemose, (1 or)2–11-flowered, 5–30 cm tall, 1–5 mm in diam. below lowermost flower, emerging from soil in nodding position. Inflorescence bracts below soil level shorter and thicker and more densely crowded on axis than upper bracts. Inflorescence bracts above soil level, sessile, ± erect, ovate to oblong, 7–15 × 3–15 mm, rather fleshy, somewhat pubescent to glabrous, margin entire or erose to irregularly toothed, apex acute to acuminate. Flowers nodding, tubular-campanulate. Bracts 1, rarely to 3, similar to inflorescence bracts in size and shape. Sepals 3–5, occasionally absent, oblong to broadly elliptic, 6–10 × 2–5 mm, shorter than petals, base attenuate, margin irregularly toothed, apex acute or acuminate. Petals 4–6, oblong, 1–1.5 cm × 3–6 mm, abaxially finely pubescent, adaxially long pubescent, base saccate, margin entire and irregularly denticulate or erose in upper part, apex acute or rounded. Stamens 8–12; filaments 7–14 mm, pubescent; anthers hippocrepiform, short, 0.8–1.5 mm, opening by a solitary terminal slit over connate sacs. Ovary 4–8 mm, 3–6 mm in diam. at anthesis, placentae axile; style 2–10 mm, ca. as long as ovary, slender, pubescent, articulation between style and ovary conspicuous. Stigma yellow, funnelform, 1.5–3 mm in diam., often subtended by a ring of short hairs, usually pubescent. Nectary at base of ovary with 8–10 paired lobes directed downward between staminal bases opposite saccate bases of petals. Capsules erect, broadly ellipsoid, 6–10 mm, 4–8 mm in diam. Fl. Jul–Aug, fr. Sep–Oct.
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Description

Plants 10-40 cm tall, pubescent. Leaves 5-15 mm long, ovate-oblong. Raceme 2-7 cm long, erect or drooping. Flowers 1.5-2.2 cm long; pedicels 4-10 cm long. Sepals 4-5, deciduous. Petals 4-5, densely pubescent on the inner face, saccate below. Stamens 8-10; filaments hairy. Capsule subglobose to globose.
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Elevation Range

2400-3700 m
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Diagnostic Description

Monotropa hypopitys is close relative of Monotropa uniflora, but differs from the latter in its inflorescence pale yellow-brown (vs. white), racemose, 2-11-flowered (vs. scapose, 1-flowered), style slender, about as long as ovary (vs. thick, shorter than ovary), disk lobes stout (vs. slender, elongate).
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Ecology

Habitat

Damp mixed and coniferous forests; 100–2500 m.
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Growing in damp mixed and coniferous forests; 100-2500 m.
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Comments: Under sand pines in dry sandy soil.

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Associations

Fungus / parasite
plant of Monotropa hypopitys parasitises mycorrhiza of Tricholoma
Other: sole host/prey

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Fungus / parasite
plant of Monotropa hypopitys parasitises Salix mycorrhiza of Tricholoma cingulatum

Fungus / parasite
plant of Monotropa hypopitys parasitises Pinus mycorrhiza of Tricholoma terreum

Fungus / parasite
plant of Monotropa hypopitys parasitises Fagus mycorrhiza of Tricholoma columbetta

Fungus / parasite
plant of Monotropa hypopitys parasitises Fagus mycorrhiza of Tricholoma saponaceum

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Comments: Wideranging in northern coniferous woodlands.

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering from July to August; fruiting from September to October.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Genetics

The chromosomal number of Monotropa hypopitys is 2n = 48 (Baker and Parfitt, 1982; Murín and Feráková, 1986).
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Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Monotropa hypopitys

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Monotropa hypopitys

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread in northern coniferous forests and extending to the pine/oak forests of Mexico and GUatemala.

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Wikipedia

Monotropa hypopitys

Monotropa hypopitys, also known as Dutchman's pipe, yellow bird's-nest or pinesap, is a herbaceous perennial plant, formerly classified in the families Monotropaceae or Pyrolaceae, but now included within the subfamily Monotropoideae of the blueberry family (Ericaceae). It is native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and is scarce or rare in many areas. However, it is still the most widespread member of the subfamily. While currently included in the genus Monotropa, recent genetic evidence strongly suggests that Monotropa hypopitys should be placed in its own genus, Hypopitys, with the single species Hypopitys monotropa Crantz, but possibly containing several other species.[1]

The pink to cream flower, with four to five petals, is borne on a short stalk

Unlike most plants, it does not contain chlorophyll; it is a myco-heterotroph, getting its food through parasitism upon fungi rather than photosynthesis. These fungi form a mycorrhiza with nearby tree species.

Plants are fleshy and grow 10–35 cm tall. True stems are nonexistent. Instead, the only part which emerges from the soil are unbranched adventitious inflorescences which are developmentally similar to adventitious roots.[2] All parts of the plant are pale yellowish white to reddish-tinged. The bracts are 5–10 mm long scale-like structures, which cover most of the inflorescence. Plants flower from April to December depending on the geographic region (June to September in North America). The flowers are pendulous when young, but become erect when they begin to mature into the fruit which is a capsule. The flowers are 9–12 mm long and produced in a cluster of 1–11 together at the apex of the inflorescence, which is a raceme. It flowers between early summer and mid autumn; plants that flower in summer are yellow and sparsely hairy, while those that flower in autumn are red and densely hairy. These two color "forms" overlap in flowering time. It has been suggested that yellow individuals are largely self-pollinating.[3]

The species name is from Latinized Greek hypo-, "under", and pitys, "pine", referring to where pinesap often grows.[4] However, Linnaeus misspelled it hypopithys. Many authorities have followed his spelling.[5][6][7] On the other hand, it has been stated that the spelling "is generally treated as correctable to 'hypopitys'",[8] as followed by other authorities.[9] The variability of the species in colour, hariness, and in the number of flowers, has led to an extensive synonymy for the species. The entire list is over 80 synonyms;[10] some of which include Hypopitys americana, H. fimbriata, H. insignata, H. lanuginosa, H. latisquama, H. monotropa, Monotropa chinensis, M. hypophegea, M. lanuginosa, M. latisquama, M. multiflora and M. taiwaniana.

In California, Monotropa hypopitys may be confused for the much less common Pityopus or Hemitomes which are superficially similar.

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Bidartondo, M.I.; Bruns, T.D. (2001), Extreme specificity in epiparasitic Monotropoidiae (Ericaceae): widespread phylogenetic and geographical structure, Molecular Ecology 
  2. ^ Wallace, G.D. (1975), Studies of the Monotropoidiae (Ericaceae): taxonomy and distribution, The Wassman Journal of Biology 
  3. ^ Klooster, Matthew R.; Culley, Theresa M. (2009), Comparative ecology of Monotropa and Monotropsis: two mycoheterotrophic genera in the Monotripoidiae (Ericaceae), The American Journal of Botany 
  4. ^ IPNI Plant Name Details, International Plant Names Index, 2005, retrieved 2009-08-08 
  5. ^ USDA, NRCS (2009), Plants profile for Monotropa hypopithys (pinesap), National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA, USA, retrieved 2009-08-08 
  6. ^ ITIS Standard Report Page: Monotropa hypopithys, 2009-06-24, retrieved 2009-08-08 
  7. ^ Iqbal Dar, M., Monotropa hypopithys in Flora of Pakistan, eFloras.org, retrieved 2009-08-08 
  8. ^ Monotropa hypopitys in the Linnaean Typification Project, The Natural History Museum, 2009, retrieved 2009-08-08 
  9. ^ Qin, Haining; Stevens, Peter F.; Wallace, Gary D. (2005), Monotropa hypopitys in Flora of China, eFloras.org, retrieved 2009-08-08 
  10. ^ Wallace, G.D. (1975), Studies of the Monotropoidiae (Ericaceae): taxonomy and distribution, The Wassman Journal of Biology 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: According to Luteyn (1995) Flora Neotropica Monograph 66 the species epithet is spelled as hypopitys. Voss (Flora of Michigan, vol. 3, 1996) and Kartesz (1994 checklist) spell this name 'hypopithys', the usage accepted here. Voss notes that the genus Hypopitys, into which this plant is sometimes placed, has an illegitimate name, citing Wood (J. Arnold Arboretum 42: 68, 1961). Closely related to the common Monotropa uniflora.

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