Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Physalis philadelphica fo. pilosa Waterf.:
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Physalis philadelphica var. minor Dunal:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Physalis laevigata M. Martens & Galeotti:
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Physalis philadelphica Lam.:
Belize (Mesoamerica)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
Guatemala (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
Panama (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)
Caribbean (Caribbean)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
China (Asia)
Ecuador (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ex Hornem.:
Canada (North America)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Global Range: Native to Mexico. Introduced to US.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Herbs annual. Stems branched, glabrescent or sparingly pubescent. Petiole 3-8 cm, densely pubescent; leaf blade broadly ovate, 3-8 × 2-6 cm, glabrescent or sparsely pubescent, base cordate, often oblique, margin usually unequal dentate, apex acute. Pedicel 3-8 mm, glabrescent. Calyx campanulate, divided to halfway. Corolla pale yellow, spotted in throat. Anthers bluish to purplish, 2-3 mm. Fruiting calyx green, ovate, 2-3 × 2-2.5 cm, weakly 5-angled, slightly invaginated at base, often completely filled by fruit. Berry green, yellow, or purplish, globose, ca. 1.2 cm in diam. Seeds discoid, ca. 2 mm in diam. Fl. May-Aug, fr. Aug-Nov.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Physalis cavaleriei H. Léveillé.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Waste places, cultivated fields, roadsides; <700 m.

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Habitat & Distribution

Grasslands, disturbed sites, cultivated and naturalized. Heilongjiang, Jilin [native to Mexico, widely cultivated and naturalized]
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Persistence: Short-lived

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Physalis philadelphica

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Barcode data: Physalis aequata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Physalis aequata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Physalis philadelphica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 24
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: Native of Mexico and introduced to US.

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: FOOD, Fruit, Spice/herb/condiment, Beverage (non-alcoholic), Other food

Production Methods: Cultivated, Wild-harvested

Comments: Fruit eaten raw but also used as very important ingredient for meat dressings and sauces. It is used for this purpose in Asia and Africa. These fruits were important in the Maya and Aztec diet, especially before 1492.

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Wikipedia

Tomatillo

The tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica), also known as tomate verde ("green tomato") is a plant of the nightshade family, related to the Cape gooseberry, bearing small, spherical and green or green-purple fruit of the same name. Tomatillos originated in Mexico,[1] and are a staple of the country's cuisine. They are grown as annuals throughout the Western Hemisphere. Tomatillos are frequently eaten fried, boiled, or steamed. The leaves are also used to treat urinary tract infections.

Description[edit]

The tomatillo fruit is surrounded by an inedible, paper-like husk formed from the calyx. As the fruit matures, it fills the husk and can split it open by harvest. The husk turns brown, and the fruit can be several colors when ripe, including yellow, red, green, or even purple. Tomatillos are the key ingredient in fresh and cooked Mexican and Central American green sauces. The freshness and greenness of the husk are quality criteria. Fruit should be firm and bright green, as the green color and tart flavor are the main culinary contributions of the fruit. Purple- and red-ripening cultivars often have a slight sweetness, unlike the green- and yellow-ripening cultivars, so are somewhat more suitable for fruit-like uses like jams and preserves. Like their close relatives, Cape gooseberries, tomatillos have a high pectin content. They also tend to have a varying degree of a sappy, sticky coating, mostly when used on the green side out of the husk.

Tomatillo plants are highly self-incompatible, and two or more plants are needed for proper pollination. Thus, isolated tomatillo plants rarely set fruit.[2] Ripe tomatillos will keep refrigerated for about two weeks. They will keep even longer if the husks are removed and the fruits are placed in sealed plastic bags stored in the refrigerator.[3] They may also be frozen whole or sliced.

Names[edit]

The tomatillo is also known as the husk tomato, jamberry, husk cherry, or Mexican tomato, but the latter is more appropriately used to describe a relative which bears smaller fruit. These names can also refer to other species in the Physalis genus. In Spanish, it is called tomate de cáscara, tomate de fresadilla, tomate milpero, tomate verde (green tomato), and tomatillo (Mexico; this term means "little tomato" elsewhere), miltomate (Mexico, Guatemala), or simply tomate (in which case the tomato is called jitomate). Even though tomatillos are sometimes called "green tomatoes", they should not be confused with green, unripe tomatoes (tomatoes are in the same family, but a different genus).

The original name for tomatillo is tomate (in Nahuatl: tomātl, than means 'fat water' or 'fat thing').[4][5][6][7][8][9] When Aztecs started to cultivate a similar fruit, but bigger and red, they called the new species jitomate ('fat water with navel' or 'fat thing with navel'). After their conquest of Tenochtitlan, Spaniards exported tomatoes (jitomates) to the rest of the world with the name tomate, so internationally the world uses the word "tomato" (tomate) to refer to the red tomato instead of the green one. Only in the center of Mexico do people still use the word tomate to refer to a tomatillo.[citation needed]

Image gallery[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tomatillo at Aggie Horticulture archive
  2. ^ Vernonica E. Franklin-Tong, ed. (2008). Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants: Evolution, Diversity and Mechanisms. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-68485-5. 
  3. ^ Carter, Noelle; Deane, Donna (2008-05-14). "Tomatillo: a green sourpuss with a sweet side". Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles Times). Retrieved 2009-08-03. 
  4. ^ xitomatl - Nahuatl Dictionary
  5. ^ tomatl - Nahuatl Dictionary
  6. ^ atl - Nahuatl Dictionary
  7. ^ tomahuac - Nahuatl Dictionary
  8. ^ toma - Nahuatl Dictionary
  9. ^ water :: atl - English to Nahuatl Glossary
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Notes

Comments

The fruits are used in some countries for sauce making. 

 The report in FRPS of Physalis pubescens is actually based on specimens of P. philadelphica. Although Physalis pubescens is a widely distributed New World weed expected to be found in China, no Chinese material has been seen. Lauener (Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 37: 148. 1978) placed P. cavaleriei and P. esquirolii as synonyms of P. pubescens. We have not seen the type specimens, and Léveillé's original description of P. esquirolii notes dark red fruits, which are unknown in American Physalis. Confident assignment of these synonyms awaits further study.

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