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Range DescriptionThis species is the most widely distributed species of the Theodoxus genus. The freshwater subspecies T. fluviatilis fluviatilis is widespread, with a Western Palaearctic range, occurring principally in the lowlands of northern, central and eastern Europe and southern Sweden to 60 degrees north. It is widespread in suitable habitats across Europe from western Russia eastwards to the Iberian peninsula and from the Balkan peninsula in the south to southern Scandinavia in the north (Zettler et al. 2004). The range of this species occurs as far as Ireland to the west (Lucey et al. 1992), and as far as the Scottish Orkney islands to the north (Zettler et al. 2004). It also occurs in lowland areas of Anatolia (Yildirim 1999). It is now expanding towards the Black Sea Basin and the Carpathian Basin where this species is invasive. There are large areas across Europe in which this species is absent, in particular in mountainous areas (Bunje 2005). This species is absent in Norway and is only present in Finland on the Ã land islands (Zettler et al. 2004). It has also become extinct in the Czech Republic (Farkac et al. 2005).
The subspecies T. fluviatilis littoralis is present in the North Sea in brackish waters of the Orkney islands and the Netherlands, and in low salinity waters of the Baltic Sea (Zettler et al. 2004). It also occurs in the Black Sea in waters with a salt content below 18% (Butenko 2001).