Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 A polychaete worm that grows up to 40 mm in length. It is blood-red in colour and has the most earthworm-like appearance of all polychaetes. It lacks gills, eyes and head appendages and has insignificant parapodia. The chaetae are hair-like spines near the head and have crochet hooks towards the rear. The species is sedentary and fragile, with a flexible body.Capitella capitata represents a complex (Grassle & Grassle, 1976) of up to 50 sibling species (Mendez et al., 1997). Although each species within the complex differs in size, reproductive strategy and larval characteristics (Pearson & Pearson, 1991; Mendez et al., 1997), many studies not accounting for this variation have extrapolated the characteristics of one member to the aggregate as a whole (Grassle & Grassle, 1977). Thus, many detailed Capitella capitata studies exist that fail to determine to which particular species of the complex measured data actually apply (e.g. Grassle & Grassle, 1974). Caution should therefore be used when applying characteristics to subsets of the aggregate complex, as most species contained within it are data deficient.
 The species of this complex can be morphologically distinguished (with difficulty) by adult differences in chaetae structure and distribution, the number of segments possessing chaetae, the shape of the pro- and peristomium, the shape of the tail and average wet weight (Grassle & Grassle, 1977; Pearson & Pearson, 1991). Clearer differences may be observed in reproductive strategy and output, larval dispersal modes and timescales, responses to ecological disturbance, genetic profiles and through the inability of different forms to interbreed.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 1 person

Average rating: 4.0 of 5

Capitella capitata is a small benthic polychaete belonging to Family Capitellidae. The body is flexible, slender, elongated, and usually blood red in color. The conical, shovel-shaped head and reduced parapodia with chetae in both rami are useful diagnostic features. There is a single genital pore between chaetigers eight and nine, surrounded by cross spines in males.
  • Biggers WJ and H Laufer. 1996. Detection of juvenile hormone-active compounds by larvae of the marine annelid Capitella sp. I. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32:475-484.
  • Bridges TS, Levin LA, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1994. Effects of sediment amended with sewage, algae, or hydrocarbons on growth and reproduction in two opportunistic polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77:99-119.
  • Bridges TS. 1996. Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes. Marine Biology 125:345-357.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985a. Oscillations of laboratory populations of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I): Their cause and implications for natural populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20:289-296.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985b. Effects of predation and disturbance on the population growth and dynamics of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I). Marine Biology 85:77-82.
  • Cuomo MC. 1985. Sulphide as a larval settlement cue for Capitella sp I Biogeochemistry. Vol.1(2): pp. 169-181.Dublilier N. 1988. Hv2S: A Settlement cue or a toxic substance for Capitella sp. I larvae? Biological Bulletin, Vol. 174(1) pp. 30-38.
  • Fauchald K and PA Jumars. 1979. The diet of worms: A study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 17:193-284.
  • Forbes VE and P Calow. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 357 (1425), Population Growth Rate: Determining Factors and Role in Population Regulation. pp. 1299-1306.
  • Forbes TL and GR Lopez. 1990. The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species 1. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 35 (7) pp. 1535-1544.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. Marine Research, 32:253-284.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella. Science 192: 567-569.Grassle JP. 1980. Polychaete sibling species. Pp. 25-32 in Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, RO Brinkhurst and DG Cook, eds. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Hannan CA. 1981. Polychaete larval settlement: Correspondence of patterns in suspended jar collectors and in the adjacent natural habitat in Monterey Bay, California. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26(1) pp. 159-171.
  • Henriksson R. 1969. Influence of pollution on the bottom fauna of the sound (Oresund). Oikos, Vol. 20(2) pp. 507-523.
  • Laufer H and WJ Biggers. 2001. Unifying concepts learned from methyl farnesoate for invertebrate reproduction and post-embryonic development. American Zoologist 41:442-457.
  • Levin L, Caswell H, Bridges T, DiBacco C, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1996. Demographic responses of estuarine polychaetes to pollutants: Life table response experiments. Ecological Applications, Vol. 6(4) pp. 1295-1313.
  • Magnum CP and W van Winkle. 1973. Response of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist 13:529-541.
  • McCall PL. 1977. Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. Marine Research 35:221-266.
  • Nelson WG and MA Capone. 1990. Experimental studies of predation on polychaetes associated with seagrass beds. Estuaries, Vol. 13(1) pp. 51-58.
  • NOAA National Benthic Inventory (NBI). Undated. Capitella capitata collection information. Available online.
  • Petraitis P. 1985. Females inhibit males' propensity to develop into simultaneous hermaphrodites in Capitella species I (Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin, Vol. 168(3) pp. 395-402.
  • Qian PY and FS Chia. 1994. In situ measurement of recruitment, mortality, growth, and fecundity of Capitella sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Ecology Progress Series 111:53-62.
  • Reish DJ. 1957. The relationship of the polychaetous annelid Capitella capitata (Fabricius), to waste discharges of biological origin. United States Public Health Services. 208: 195-200.
  • Rosenberg R. 1976. Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos, Vol. 27(3) pp. 414-427.
  • Sears NE and AJ Mueller. 1989. A survey of the polychaetes of Bolivar Flats and Big Reef, Galveston, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 34:150-154.
  • Tenore KR. 1977 Growth of Capitella capitata cultured on various levels of detrit.us derlved from different sources. Limnology and Oceanography 22:936-941.
  • Tenore K and RB Hanson. 1980. Availability of detritus of different types and ages to a polychaete macroconsumer, Capitella capitata. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 25(3) pp. 553-558.
  • Tenore KR amd EJ Chesney, Jr. 1985. The effects of interaction of rate of food supply and population density on the bioenergetics of the opportunistic polychaete, Capitella capitata (type I ). Limnology and Oceanography 30:1188-1195.
  • Tsutsumi H and T Kikuchi. 1984.Study of the life history of Capitella capitata (Polychaeta: Capitellidae) in Amakusa, South Japan including a comparison with other geographical regions. Marine Biology 80:315-321.
  • Ward TJ, and PA Hutchings PA. 1996. Effects of trace metals on infaunal species composition in polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediment near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135:123-135.
  • Warren LM. 1977. The ecology of Capitella capitata in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57:151-159.
  • Wilson WH. 1990. Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:221-241.
  • Wu B, Qian P, and S Zhang S. 1988. Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao. Acta Oceanol Sinica 7: 442-458.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Restricted to Arctic and subarctic localities (Blake, 2009). In CaRMS reported from Saguenay Fjord, northern Gaspe waters, downstream part of middle St. Lawrence estuary, Magdalen Islands (from eastern Bradelle valley to the west, as far as Cape North, including the Cape Breton Channel), lower St. Lawrence estuary; Prince Edward Island (from the northern tip of Miscou Island, N.B. to Cape Breton Island south of Cheticamp, including the Northumberland Strait and Georges Bay to the Canso Strait causeway); Cobscook Bay
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Capitella capitata is generally considered to be a cosmopolitan species in coastal marine and estuarine soft sediment systems. Grassle and Grassle (1976) used electrophoretic enzyme analysis to determine that the global population is actually made up of several genetically distinct (and apparently genetically isolated) sibling species whose distributions overlap such that local C. capitata populations actually consist of a number of co-occurring sibling species. Capitella capitata occurs throughout the soft sediment communities of the India River Lagoon.
  • Biggers WJ and H Laufer. 1996. Detection of juvenile hormone-active compounds by larvae of the marine annelid Capitella sp. I. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32:475-484.
  • Bridges TS, Levin LA, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1994. Effects of sediment amended with sewage, algae, or hydrocarbons on growth and reproduction in two opportunistic polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77:99-119.
  • Bridges TS. 1996. Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes. Marine Biology 125:345-357.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985a. Oscillations of laboratory populations of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I): Their cause and implications for natural populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20:289-296.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985b. Effects of predation and disturbance on the population growth and dynamics of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I). Marine Biology 85:77-82.
  • Cuomo MC. 1985. Sulphide as a larval settlement cue for Capitella sp I Biogeochemistry. Vol.1(2): pp. 169-181.Dublilier N. 1988. Hv2S: A Settlement cue or a toxic substance for Capitella sp. I larvae? Biological Bulletin, Vol. 174(1) pp. 30-38.
  • Fauchald K and PA Jumars. 1979. The diet of worms: A study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 17:193-284.
  • Forbes VE and P Calow. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 357 (1425), Population Growth Rate: Determining Factors and Role in Population Regulation. pp. 1299-1306.
  • Forbes TL and GR Lopez. 1990. The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species 1. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 35 (7) pp. 1535-1544.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. Marine Research, 32:253-284.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella. Science 192: 567-569.Grassle JP. 1980. Polychaete sibling species. Pp. 25-32 in Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, RO Brinkhurst and DG Cook, eds. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Hannan CA. 1981. Polychaete larval settlement: Correspondence of patterns in suspended jar collectors and in the adjacent natural habitat in Monterey Bay, California. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26(1) pp. 159-171.
  • Henriksson R. 1969. Influence of pollution on the bottom fauna of the sound (Oresund). Oikos, Vol. 20(2) pp. 507-523.
  • Laufer H and WJ Biggers. 2001. Unifying concepts learned from methyl farnesoate for invertebrate reproduction and post-embryonic development. American Zoologist 41:442-457.
  • Levin L, Caswell H, Bridges T, DiBacco C, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1996. Demographic responses of estuarine polychaetes to pollutants: Life table response experiments. Ecological Applications, Vol. 6(4) pp. 1295-1313.
  • Magnum CP and W van Winkle. 1973. Response of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist 13:529-541.
  • McCall PL. 1977. Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. Marine Research 35:221-266.
  • Nelson WG and MA Capone. 1990. Experimental studies of predation on polychaetes associated with seagrass beds. Estuaries, Vol. 13(1) pp. 51-58.
  • NOAA National Benthic Inventory (NBI). Undated. Capitella capitata collection information. Available online.
  • Petraitis P. 1985. Females inhibit males' propensity to develop into simultaneous hermaphrodites in Capitella species I (Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin, Vol. 168(3) pp. 395-402.
  • Qian PY and FS Chia. 1994. In situ measurement of recruitment, mortality, growth, and fecundity of Capitella sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Ecology Progress Series 111:53-62.
  • Reish DJ. 1957. The relationship of the polychaetous annelid Capitella capitata (Fabricius), to waste discharges of biological origin. United States Public Health Services. 208: 195-200.
  • Rosenberg R. 1976. Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos, Vol. 27(3) pp. 414-427.
  • Sears NE and AJ Mueller. 1989. A survey of the polychaetes of Bolivar Flats and Big Reef, Galveston, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 34:150-154.
  • Tenore KR. 1977 Growth of Capitella capitata cultured on various levels of detrit.us derlved from different sources. Limnology and Oceanography 22:936-941.
  • Tenore K and RB Hanson. 1980. Availability of detritus of different types and ages to a polychaete macroconsumer, Capitella capitata. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 25(3) pp. 553-558.
  • Tenore KR amd EJ Chesney, Jr. 1985. The effects of interaction of rate of food supply and population density on the bioenergetics of the opportunistic polychaete, Capitella capitata (type I ). Limnology and Oceanography 30:1188-1195.
  • Tsutsumi H and T Kikuchi. 1984.Study of the life history of Capitella capitata (Polychaeta: Capitellidae) in Amakusa, South Japan including a comparison with other geographical regions. Marine Biology 80:315-321.
  • Ward TJ, and PA Hutchings PA. 1996. Effects of trace metals on infaunal species composition in polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediment near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135:123-135.
  • Warren LM. 1977. The ecology of Capitella capitata in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57:151-159.
  • Wilson WH. 1990. Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:221-241.
  • Wu B, Qian P, and S Zhang S. 1988. Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao. Acta Oceanol Sinica 7: 442-458.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Size

Capitella capitata is a small polychaete worm. Specimens may reach 10 cm, but more often they are around 2 cm.
  • Biggers WJ and H Laufer. 1996. Detection of juvenile hormone-active compounds by larvae of the marine annelid Capitella sp. I. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32:475-484.
  • Bridges TS, Levin LA, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1994. Effects of sediment amended with sewage, algae, or hydrocarbons on growth and reproduction in two opportunistic polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77:99-119.
  • Bridges TS. 1996. Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes. Marine Biology 125:345-357.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985a. Oscillations of laboratory populations of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I): Their cause and implications for natural populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20:289-296.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985b. Effects of predation and disturbance on the population growth and dynamics of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I). Marine Biology 85:77-82.
  • Cuomo MC. 1985. Sulphide as a larval settlement cue for Capitella sp I Biogeochemistry. Vol.1(2): pp. 169-181.Dublilier N. 1988. Hv2S: A Settlement cue or a toxic substance for Capitella sp. I larvae? Biological Bulletin, Vol. 174(1) pp. 30-38.
  • Fauchald K and PA Jumars. 1979. The diet of worms: A study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 17:193-284.
  • Forbes VE and P Calow. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 357 (1425), Population Growth Rate: Determining Factors and Role in Population Regulation. pp. 1299-1306.
  • Forbes TL and GR Lopez. 1990. The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species 1. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 35 (7) pp. 1535-1544.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. Marine Research, 32:253-284.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella. Science 192: 567-569.Grassle JP. 1980. Polychaete sibling species. Pp. 25-32 in Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, RO Brinkhurst and DG Cook, eds. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Hannan CA. 1981. Polychaete larval settlement: Correspondence of patterns in suspended jar collectors and in the adjacent natural habitat in Monterey Bay, California. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26(1) pp. 159-171.
  • Henriksson R. 1969. Influence of pollution on the bottom fauna of the sound (Oresund). Oikos, Vol. 20(2) pp. 507-523.
  • Laufer H and WJ Biggers. 2001. Unifying concepts learned from methyl farnesoate for invertebrate reproduction and post-embryonic development. American Zoologist 41:442-457.
  • Levin L, Caswell H, Bridges T, DiBacco C, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1996. Demographic responses of estuarine polychaetes to pollutants: Life table response experiments. Ecological Applications, Vol. 6(4) pp. 1295-1313.
  • Magnum CP and W van Winkle. 1973. Response of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist 13:529-541.
  • McCall PL. 1977. Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. Marine Research 35:221-266.
  • Nelson WG and MA Capone. 1990. Experimental studies of predation on polychaetes associated with seagrass beds. Estuaries, Vol. 13(1) pp. 51-58.
  • NOAA National Benthic Inventory (NBI). Undated. Capitella capitata collection information. Available online.
  • Petraitis P. 1985. Females inhibit males' propensity to develop into simultaneous hermaphrodites in Capitella species I (Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin, Vol. 168(3) pp. 395-402.
  • Qian PY and FS Chia. 1994. In situ measurement of recruitment, mortality, growth, and fecundity of Capitella sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Ecology Progress Series 111:53-62.
  • Reish DJ. 1957. The relationship of the polychaetous annelid Capitella capitata (Fabricius), to waste discharges of biological origin. United States Public Health Services. 208: 195-200.
  • Rosenberg R. 1976. Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos, Vol. 27(3) pp. 414-427.
  • Sears NE and AJ Mueller. 1989. A survey of the polychaetes of Bolivar Flats and Big Reef, Galveston, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 34:150-154.
  • Tenore KR. 1977 Growth of Capitella capitata cultured on various levels of detrit.us derlved from different sources. Limnology and Oceanography 22:936-941.
  • Tenore K and RB Hanson. 1980. Availability of detritus of different types and ages to a polychaete macroconsumer, Capitella capitata. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 25(3) pp. 553-558.
  • Tenore KR amd EJ Chesney, Jr. 1985. The effects of interaction of rate of food supply and population density on the bioenergetics of the opportunistic polychaete, Capitella capitata (type I ). Limnology and Oceanography 30:1188-1195.
  • Tsutsumi H and T Kikuchi. 1984.Study of the life history of Capitella capitata (Polychaeta: Capitellidae) in Amakusa, South Japan including a comparison with other geographical regions. Marine Biology 80:315-321.
  • Ward TJ, and PA Hutchings PA. 1996. Effects of trace metals on infaunal species composition in polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediment near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135:123-135.
  • Warren LM. 1977. The ecology of Capitella capitata in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57:151-159.
  • Wilson WH. 1990. Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:221-241.
  • Wu B, Qian P, and S Zhang S. 1988. Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao. Acta Oceanol Sinica 7: 442-458.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Look Alikes

Capitella capitata is morphologically similar to a number of infaunal polychaetes, and positive identification to species level is generally beyond the scope of amateur naturalists.
  • Biggers WJ and H Laufer. 1996. Detection of juvenile hormone-active compounds by larvae of the marine annelid Capitella sp. I. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32:475-484.
  • Bridges TS, Levin LA, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1994. Effects of sediment amended with sewage, algae, or hydrocarbons on growth and reproduction in two opportunistic polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77:99-119.
  • Bridges TS. 1996. Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes. Marine Biology 125:345-357.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985a. Oscillations of laboratory populations of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I): Their cause and implications for natural populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20:289-296.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985b. Effects of predation and disturbance on the population growth and dynamics of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I). Marine Biology 85:77-82.
  • Cuomo MC. 1985. Sulphide as a larval settlement cue for Capitella sp I Biogeochemistry. Vol.1(2): pp. 169-181.Dublilier N. 1988. Hv2S: A Settlement cue or a toxic substance for Capitella sp. I larvae? Biological Bulletin, Vol. 174(1) pp. 30-38.
  • Fauchald K and PA Jumars. 1979. The diet of worms: A study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 17:193-284.
  • Forbes VE and P Calow. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 357 (1425), Population Growth Rate: Determining Factors and Role in Population Regulation. pp. 1299-1306.
  • Forbes TL and GR Lopez. 1990. The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species 1. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 35 (7) pp. 1535-1544.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. Marine Research, 32:253-284.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella. Science 192: 567-569.Grassle JP. 1980. Polychaete sibling species. Pp. 25-32 in Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, RO Brinkhurst and DG Cook, eds. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Hannan CA. 1981. Polychaete larval settlement: Correspondence of patterns in suspended jar collectors and in the adjacent natural habitat in Monterey Bay, California. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26(1) pp. 159-171.
  • Henriksson R. 1969. Influence of pollution on the bottom fauna of the sound (Oresund). Oikos, Vol. 20(2) pp. 507-523.
  • Laufer H and WJ Biggers. 2001. Unifying concepts learned from methyl farnesoate for invertebrate reproduction and post-embryonic development. American Zoologist 41:442-457.
  • Levin L, Caswell H, Bridges T, DiBacco C, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1996. Demographic responses of estuarine polychaetes to pollutants: Life table response experiments. Ecological Applications, Vol. 6(4) pp. 1295-1313.
  • Magnum CP and W van Winkle. 1973. Response of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist 13:529-541.
  • McCall PL. 1977. Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. Marine Research 35:221-266.
  • Nelson WG and MA Capone. 1990. Experimental studies of predation on polychaetes associated with seagrass beds. Estuaries, Vol. 13(1) pp. 51-58.
  • NOAA National Benthic Inventory (NBI). Undated. Capitella capitata collection information. Available online.
  • Petraitis P. 1985. Females inhibit males' propensity to develop into simultaneous hermaphrodites in Capitella species I (Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin, Vol. 168(3) pp. 395-402.
  • Qian PY and FS Chia. 1994. In situ measurement of recruitment, mortality, growth, and fecundity of Capitella sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Ecology Progress Series 111:53-62.
  • Reish DJ. 1957. The relationship of the polychaetous annelid Capitella capitata (Fabricius), to waste discharges of biological origin. United States Public Health Services. 208: 195-200.
  • Rosenberg R. 1976. Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos, Vol. 27(3) pp. 414-427.
  • Sears NE and AJ Mueller. 1989. A survey of the polychaetes of Bolivar Flats and Big Reef, Galveston, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 34:150-154.
  • Tenore KR. 1977 Growth of Capitella capitata cultured on various levels of detrit.us derlved from different sources. Limnology and Oceanography 22:936-941.
  • Tenore K and RB Hanson. 1980. Availability of detritus of different types and ages to a polychaete macroconsumer, Capitella capitata. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 25(3) pp. 553-558.
  • Tenore KR amd EJ Chesney, Jr. 1985. The effects of interaction of rate of food supply and population density on the bioenergetics of the opportunistic polychaete, Capitella capitata (type I ). Limnology and Oceanography 30:1188-1195.
  • Tsutsumi H and T Kikuchi. 1984.Study of the life history of Capitella capitata (Polychaeta: Capitellidae) in Amakusa, South Japan including a comparison with other geographical regions. Marine Biology 80:315-321.
  • Ward TJ, and PA Hutchings PA. 1996. Effects of trace metals on infaunal species composition in polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediment near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135:123-135.
  • Warren LM. 1977. The ecology of Capitella capitata in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57:151-159.
  • Wilson WH. 1990. Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:221-241.
  • Wu B, Qian P, and S Zhang S. 1988. Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao. Acta Oceanol Sinica 7: 442-458.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

intertidal, bathyal, infralittoral and circalittoral of the Gulf and estuary
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© WoRMS for SMEBD

Source: World Register of Marine Species

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 5609 specimens in 4 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 361 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): -1.18 - 3232
  Temperature range (°C): -1.212 - 27.678
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.006 - 42.195
  Salinity (PPS): 10.036 - 39.051
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.302 - 8.615
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.063 - 3.054
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 176.826

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): -1.18 - 3232

Temperature range (°C): -1.212 - 27.678

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.006 - 42.195

Salinity (PPS): 10.036 - 39.051

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.302 - 8.615

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.063 - 3.054

Silicate (umol/l): 0.805 - 176.826
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

 Capitella capitata occurs on muddy sand, gritty sand, fine sand or rich mud on the lower shore to sub-littoral. It may be found under pebbles or small stones, with the burrows at or near the surface of the sediment. Capitella capitata is also frequently found in polluted or disturbed areas, such as harbours, near sewage outfalls and sludge dumps and in sediments contaminated with oil.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

©  The Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

Source: Marine Life Information Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Capitella capitata is a deposit-feeding detrital consumer (Henriksson 1969, Levin et al. 1996). Individuals feed by everting a papillose sac-like proboscis to gather detrital deposits. Feeding is primarily non-selective, but gut contents usually include significant algal material, suggesting that some selection may occur (Fauchald and Jumars 1979).Tenore and Hanson (1980) demonstrated that detrital materials from different sources were of unequal nutritional value to C. capitata, with decay-resistant Spartina detritus being less available than periphyton or macroalgal detritus. Nutritional value of all types of detritus increased with aging, suggesting that microbial enrichment is an important aspect of benthic detrital energetics. Competitors: Capitella capitata thrive in the absence of intraspecific competition as early colonizers to benthic habitat patches that have been disturbed or otherwise defaunated as a result of environmental stress (Grassle and Grassle 1974, McCall 1977).While space may at times be a limiting factor, some experimental evidence exists suggesting that dietary resources are generally not limiting in most infaunal estuarine habitats (Wilson 1990, Bridges 1996). Predators: An array of benthic fish and invertebrate predators rely on infaunal polychaetes as a seasonally variable dietary resource (Marsh and Tenore 1990). Nelson and Capone (1990) experimentally demonstrated that specific predators impact various infaunal polychaete populations differently, depending on predator foraging strategy and prey species-specific distribution depth. Habitats: Capitella capitata is a component of a great many marine soft sediment communities, including vegetated and unvegetated benthic habitats as well as those with elevated nutrient loads or excess levels of other types of pollutants. It resides within mucus-lined burrows within the substratum (Henriksson 1969, Rosenberg 1976, Forbes and Lopez 1990). NOAA NBI ollections have revealed the presence of this species at depths ranging from inertidal to 57 m.This polychaete is a prototypical 'r-adapted' species, i.e., an opportunistic species with high growth, reproduction, and mortality rates. As with most such opportunistic species, C. capitata populations often show variable densities, including pronounced seasonal shifts in abundance (McCall 1977). Rapid growth and reproduction during periods of high food availability appear to push localized populations above carrying capacity, resulting in rapid population declines when resources become scarce and the needs of the population cannot be met. (Chesney and Tenore 1985a, b).
  • Biggers WJ and H Laufer. 1996. Detection of juvenile hormone-active compounds by larvae of the marine annelid Capitella sp. I. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32:475-484.
  • Bridges TS, Levin LA, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1994. Effects of sediment amended with sewage, algae, or hydrocarbons on growth and reproduction in two opportunistic polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77:99-119.
  • Bridges TS. 1996. Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes. Marine Biology 125:345-357.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985a. Oscillations of laboratory populations of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I): Their cause and implications for natural populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20:289-296.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985b. Effects of predation and disturbance on the population growth and dynamics of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I). Marine Biology 85:77-82.
  • Cuomo MC. 1985. Sulphide as a larval settlement cue for Capitella sp I Biogeochemistry. Vol.1(2): pp. 169-181.Dublilier N. 1988. Hv2S: A Settlement cue or a toxic substance for Capitella sp. I larvae? Biological Bulletin, Vol. 174(1) pp. 30-38.
  • Fauchald K and PA Jumars. 1979. The diet of worms: A study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 17:193-284.
  • Forbes VE and P Calow. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 357 (1425), Population Growth Rate: Determining Factors and Role in Population Regulation. pp. 1299-1306.
  • Forbes TL and GR Lopez. 1990. The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species 1. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 35 (7) pp. 1535-1544.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. Marine Research, 32:253-284.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella. Science 192: 567-569.Grassle JP. 1980. Polychaete sibling species. Pp. 25-32 in Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, RO Brinkhurst and DG Cook, eds. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Hannan CA. 1981. Polychaete larval settlement: Correspondence of patterns in suspended jar collectors and in the adjacent natural habitat in Monterey Bay, California. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26(1) pp. 159-171.
  • Henriksson R. 1969. Influence of pollution on the bottom fauna of the sound (Oresund). Oikos, Vol. 20(2) pp. 507-523.
  • Laufer H and WJ Biggers. 2001. Unifying concepts learned from methyl farnesoate for invertebrate reproduction and post-embryonic development. American Zoologist 41:442-457.
  • Levin L, Caswell H, Bridges T, DiBacco C, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1996. Demographic responses of estuarine polychaetes to pollutants: Life table response experiments. Ecological Applications, Vol. 6(4) pp. 1295-1313.
  • Magnum CP and W van Winkle. 1973. Response of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist 13:529-541.
  • McCall PL. 1977. Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. Marine Research 35:221-266.
  • Nelson WG and MA Capone. 1990. Experimental studies of predation on polychaetes associated with seagrass beds. Estuaries, Vol. 13(1) pp. 51-58.
  • NOAA National Benthic Inventory (NBI). Undated. Capitella capitata collection information. Available online.
  • Petraitis P. 1985. Females inhibit males' propensity to develop into simultaneous hermaphrodites in Capitella species I (Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin, Vol. 168(3) pp. 395-402.
  • Qian PY and FS Chia. 1994. In situ measurement of recruitment, mortality, growth, and fecundity of Capitella sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Ecology Progress Series 111:53-62.
  • Reish DJ. 1957. The relationship of the polychaetous annelid Capitella capitata (Fabricius), to waste discharges of biological origin. United States Public Health Services. 208: 195-200.
  • Rosenberg R. 1976. Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos, Vol. 27(3) pp. 414-427.
  • Sears NE and AJ Mueller. 1989. A survey of the polychaetes of Bolivar Flats and Big Reef, Galveston, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 34:150-154.
  • Tenore KR. 1977 Growth of Capitella capitata cultured on various levels of detrit.us derlved from different sources. Limnology and Oceanography 22:936-941.
  • Tenore K and RB Hanson. 1980. Availability of detritus of different types and ages to a polychaete macroconsumer, Capitella capitata. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 25(3) pp. 553-558.
  • Tenore KR amd EJ Chesney, Jr. 1985. The effects of interaction of rate of food supply and population density on the bioenergetics of the opportunistic polychaete, Capitella capitata (type I ). Limnology and Oceanography 30:1188-1195.
  • Tsutsumi H and T Kikuchi. 1984.Study of the life history of Capitella capitata (Polychaeta: Capitellidae) in Amakusa, South Japan including a comparison with other geographical regions. Marine Biology 80:315-321.
  • Ward TJ, and PA Hutchings PA. 1996. Effects of trace metals on infaunal species composition in polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediment near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135:123-135.
  • Warren LM. 1977. The ecology of Capitella capitata in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57:151-159.
  • Wilson WH. 1990. Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:221-241.
  • Wu B, Qian P, and S Zhang S. 1988. Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao. Acta Oceanol Sinica 7: 442-458.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Known predators

Capitella capitata is prey of:
Zoarces viviparus
Pleuronectes platessa
Platichthys flesus

Based on studies in:
Scotland (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Known prey organisms

Capitella capitata preys on:
POM

Based on studies in:
Scotland (Estuarine)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • Hall SJ, Raffaelli D (1991) Food-web patterns: lessons from a species-rich web. J Anim Ecol 60:823–842
  • Huxham M, Beany S, Raffaelli D (1996) Do parasites reduce the chances of triangulation in a real food web? Oikos 76:284–300
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© SPIRE project

Source: SPIRE

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Infaunal polychaetes such as Capitella capitata can be extremely abundant, generally ranging between several hundred and several thousand individuals per square meter. Sears and Mueller (1989) report a peak seasonal numerical abundance of 22,000 individuals/m2 in a Galveston, TX, mixed-species assemblage consisting primarily of C. capitata, Streblospio benedicti, and Scoloplos foliosus. At other times during the study, abundance declined to a low of around 1,330 individuals/m2.
  • Biggers WJ and H Laufer. 1996. Detection of juvenile hormone-active compounds by larvae of the marine annelid Capitella sp. I. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32:475-484.
  • Bridges TS, Levin LA, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1994. Effects of sediment amended with sewage, algae, or hydrocarbons on growth and reproduction in two opportunistic polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77:99-119.
  • Bridges TS. 1996. Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes. Marine Biology 125:345-357.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985a. Oscillations of laboratory populations of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I): Their cause and implications for natural populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20:289-296.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985b. Effects of predation and disturbance on the population growth and dynamics of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I). Marine Biology 85:77-82.
  • Cuomo MC. 1985. Sulphide as a larval settlement cue for Capitella sp I Biogeochemistry. Vol.1(2): pp. 169-181.Dublilier N. 1988. Hv2S: A Settlement cue or a toxic substance for Capitella sp. I larvae? Biological Bulletin, Vol. 174(1) pp. 30-38.
  • Fauchald K and PA Jumars. 1979. The diet of worms: A study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 17:193-284.
  • Forbes VE and P Calow. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 357 (1425), Population Growth Rate: Determining Factors and Role in Population Regulation. pp. 1299-1306.
  • Forbes TL and GR Lopez. 1990. The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species 1. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 35 (7) pp. 1535-1544.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. Marine Research, 32:253-284.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella. Science 192: 567-569.Grassle JP. 1980. Polychaete sibling species. Pp. 25-32 in Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, RO Brinkhurst and DG Cook, eds. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Hannan CA. 1981. Polychaete larval settlement: Correspondence of patterns in suspended jar collectors and in the adjacent natural habitat in Monterey Bay, California. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26(1) pp. 159-171.
  • Henriksson R. 1969. Influence of pollution on the bottom fauna of the sound (Oresund). Oikos, Vol. 20(2) pp. 507-523.
  • Laufer H and WJ Biggers. 2001. Unifying concepts learned from methyl farnesoate for invertebrate reproduction and post-embryonic development. American Zoologist 41:442-457.
  • Levin L, Caswell H, Bridges T, DiBacco C, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1996. Demographic responses of estuarine polychaetes to pollutants: Life table response experiments. Ecological Applications, Vol. 6(4) pp. 1295-1313.
  • Magnum CP and W van Winkle. 1973. Response of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist 13:529-541.
  • McCall PL. 1977. Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. Marine Research 35:221-266.
  • Nelson WG and MA Capone. 1990. Experimental studies of predation on polychaetes associated with seagrass beds. Estuaries, Vol. 13(1) pp. 51-58.
  • NOAA National Benthic Inventory (NBI). Undated. Capitella capitata collection information. Available online.
  • Petraitis P. 1985. Females inhibit males' propensity to develop into simultaneous hermaphrodites in Capitella species I (Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin, Vol. 168(3) pp. 395-402.
  • Qian PY and FS Chia. 1994. In situ measurement of recruitment, mortality, growth, and fecundity of Capitella sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Ecology Progress Series 111:53-62.
  • Reish DJ. 1957. The relationship of the polychaetous annelid Capitella capitata (Fabricius), to waste discharges of biological origin. United States Public Health Services. 208: 195-200.
  • Rosenberg R. 1976. Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos, Vol. 27(3) pp. 414-427.
  • Sears NE and AJ Mueller. 1989. A survey of the polychaetes of Bolivar Flats and Big Reef, Galveston, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 34:150-154.
  • Tenore KR. 1977 Growth of Capitella capitata cultured on various levels of detrit.us derlved from different sources. Limnology and Oceanography 22:936-941.
  • Tenore K and RB Hanson. 1980. Availability of detritus of different types and ages to a polychaete macroconsumer, Capitella capitata. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 25(3) pp. 553-558.
  • Tenore KR amd EJ Chesney, Jr. 1985. The effects of interaction of rate of food supply and population density on the bioenergetics of the opportunistic polychaete, Capitella capitata (type I ). Limnology and Oceanography 30:1188-1195.
  • Tsutsumi H and T Kikuchi. 1984.Study of the life history of Capitella capitata (Polychaeta: Capitellidae) in Amakusa, South Japan including a comparison with other geographical regions. Marine Biology 80:315-321.
  • Ward TJ, and PA Hutchings PA. 1996. Effects of trace metals on infaunal species composition in polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediment near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135:123-135.
  • Warren LM. 1977. The ecology of Capitella capitata in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57:151-159.
  • Wilson WH. 1990. Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:221-241.
  • Wu B, Qian P, and S Zhang S. 1988. Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao. Acta Oceanol Sinica 7: 442-458.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Male Capitella species I are capable of developing as simultaneous hermaphrodites, and they do so at greater frequency when females are scarce within the population (Petraitis 1985). Hermaphroditism in Capitella has been hypothesized to be an adaptation to conditions of low faunal density. However, since females do not become hermaphroditic and hermaphrodites don't self-fertilize, Petraitis (1985) suggests hermaphroditism in Capitella is an adaptation to reduce mate competition in small local populations.Animals reach sexual maturity at about 4 months in temperate waters, and somewhat faster in warmer areas (Warren 1976, Qian and Chia 1994). In the laboratory, animals became mature in 31-48 days at temperatures ranging around 12.6-22°C (Tsutsumi and Kikuchi 1984). Female produces from 100-1,000 eggs.
  • Biggers WJ and H Laufer. 1996. Detection of juvenile hormone-active compounds by larvae of the marine annelid Capitella sp. I. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32:475-484.
  • Bridges TS, Levin LA, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1994. Effects of sediment amended with sewage, algae, or hydrocarbons on growth and reproduction in two opportunistic polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77:99-119.
  • Bridges TS. 1996. Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes. Marine Biology 125:345-357.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985a. Oscillations of laboratory populations of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I): Their cause and implications for natural populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20:289-296.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985b. Effects of predation and disturbance on the population growth and dynamics of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I). Marine Biology 85:77-82.
  • Cuomo MC. 1985. Sulphide as a larval settlement cue for Capitella sp I Biogeochemistry. Vol.1(2): pp. 169-181.Dublilier N. 1988. Hv2S: A Settlement cue or a toxic substance for Capitella sp. I larvae? Biological Bulletin, Vol. 174(1) pp. 30-38.
  • Fauchald K and PA Jumars. 1979. The diet of worms: A study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 17:193-284.
  • Forbes VE and P Calow. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 357 (1425), Population Growth Rate: Determining Factors and Role in Population Regulation. pp. 1299-1306.
  • Forbes TL and GR Lopez. 1990. The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species 1. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 35 (7) pp. 1535-1544.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. Marine Research, 32:253-284.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella. Science 192: 567-569.Grassle JP. 1980. Polychaete sibling species. Pp. 25-32 in Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, RO Brinkhurst and DG Cook, eds. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Hannan CA. 1981. Polychaete larval settlement: Correspondence of patterns in suspended jar collectors and in the adjacent natural habitat in Monterey Bay, California. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26(1) pp. 159-171.
  • Henriksson R. 1969. Influence of pollution on the bottom fauna of the sound (Oresund). Oikos, Vol. 20(2) pp. 507-523.
  • Laufer H and WJ Biggers. 2001. Unifying concepts learned from methyl farnesoate for invertebrate reproduction and post-embryonic development. American Zoologist 41:442-457.
  • Levin L, Caswell H, Bridges T, DiBacco C, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1996. Demographic responses of estuarine polychaetes to pollutants: Life table response experiments. Ecological Applications, Vol. 6(4) pp. 1295-1313.
  • Magnum CP and W van Winkle. 1973. Response of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist 13:529-541.
  • McCall PL. 1977. Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. Marine Research 35:221-266.
  • Nelson WG and MA Capone. 1990. Experimental studies of predation on polychaetes associated with seagrass beds. Estuaries, Vol. 13(1) pp. 51-58.
  • NOAA National Benthic Inventory (NBI). Undated. Capitella capitata collection information. Available online.
  • Petraitis P. 1985. Females inhibit males' propensity to develop into simultaneous hermaphrodites in Capitella species I (Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin, Vol. 168(3) pp. 395-402.
  • Qian PY and FS Chia. 1994. In situ measurement of recruitment, mortality, growth, and fecundity of Capitella sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Ecology Progress Series 111:53-62.
  • Reish DJ. 1957. The relationship of the polychaetous annelid Capitella capitata (Fabricius), to waste discharges of biological origin. United States Public Health Services. 208: 195-200.
  • Rosenberg R. 1976. Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos, Vol. 27(3) pp. 414-427.
  • Sears NE and AJ Mueller. 1989. A survey of the polychaetes of Bolivar Flats and Big Reef, Galveston, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 34:150-154.
  • Tenore KR. 1977 Growth of Capitella capitata cultured on various levels of detrit.us derlved from different sources. Limnology and Oceanography 22:936-941.
  • Tenore K and RB Hanson. 1980. Availability of detritus of different types and ages to a polychaete macroconsumer, Capitella capitata. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 25(3) pp. 553-558.
  • Tenore KR amd EJ Chesney, Jr. 1985. The effects of interaction of rate of food supply and population density on the bioenergetics of the opportunistic polychaete, Capitella capitata (type I ). Limnology and Oceanography 30:1188-1195.
  • Tsutsumi H and T Kikuchi. 1984.Study of the life history of Capitella capitata (Polychaeta: Capitellidae) in Amakusa, South Japan including a comparison with other geographical regions. Marine Biology 80:315-321.
  • Ward TJ, and PA Hutchings PA. 1996. Effects of trace metals on infaunal species composition in polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediment near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135:123-135.
  • Warren LM. 1977. The ecology of Capitella capitata in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57:151-159.
  • Wilson WH. 1990. Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:221-241.
  • Wu B, Qian P, and S Zhang S. 1988. Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao. Acta Oceanol Sinica 7: 442-458.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Growth

Somewhat similar to the polychaete Streblospio benedicti, Capitella capitata exhibits both pelagic and non-pelagic (direct-developing) larval development strategies (Henriksson 1969, Rosenberg 1976).Forbes and Calow (2002) indicate that the Type M and Type I sibling C. capitata species are lecithotrophic (briefly planktonic), while the Type S sibling species is direct-developing. Lecithotrophic larvae are brooded during part of their development within the adult burrow tube (Grassle and Grassle 1974)Planktonic-developing Capitella capitata transition over several hours to several days through two distinct free-swimming larval stages (trochophore, metatrochophore) before undergoing metamorphosis and settlement to the benthos as a crawling worm (Biggers and Laufer 1996). This process can be accelerated in the laboratory within the span of an hour or less by exposing larvae to methyl farnesoate which has been shown to be stimulatory to early postembryonic larval stages of crustaceans as well (Laufer and Biggers 2001).Dubilier (1988) demonstrated that newly hatched Capitella species I could be induced to settle onto organic-enriched sediments in as little as 30 minutes. The addition of sulphide to experimental sediments delayed settlement by several hours as larvae apparently tried to avoid settling into sulphide-rich areas. Presented alone, however, sulphide induced settlement, in keeping with earlier findings by Cuomo (1985) that sulphide is a positive settlement cue associated with areas of nutrient enrishment.Hannan (1981) used collection jars to sample water column availability of C. capitata larvae and demonstrated that larval availability does not determine observed benthic settlement patterns. The author suggested that larval substratum choice and environmental hydrodynamic processes must also be considered when predicting or interpreting recruitment patterns.
  • Biggers WJ and H Laufer. 1996. Detection of juvenile hormone-active compounds by larvae of the marine annelid Capitella sp. I. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32:475-484.
  • Bridges TS, Levin LA, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1994. Effects of sediment amended with sewage, algae, or hydrocarbons on growth and reproduction in two opportunistic polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77:99-119.
  • Bridges TS. 1996. Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes. Marine Biology 125:345-357.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985a. Oscillations of laboratory populations of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I): Their cause and implications for natural populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20:289-296.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985b. Effects of predation and disturbance on the population growth and dynamics of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I). Marine Biology 85:77-82.
  • Cuomo MC. 1985. Sulphide as a larval settlement cue for Capitella sp I Biogeochemistry. Vol.1(2): pp. 169-181.Dublilier N. 1988. Hv2S: A Settlement cue or a toxic substance for Capitella sp. I larvae? Biological Bulletin, Vol. 174(1) pp. 30-38.
  • Fauchald K and PA Jumars. 1979. The diet of worms: A study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 17:193-284.
  • Forbes VE and P Calow. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 357 (1425), Population Growth Rate: Determining Factors and Role in Population Regulation. pp. 1299-1306.
  • Forbes TL and GR Lopez. 1990. The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species 1. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 35 (7) pp. 1535-1544.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. Marine Research, 32:253-284.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella. Science 192: 567-569.Grassle JP. 1980. Polychaete sibling species. Pp. 25-32 in Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, RO Brinkhurst and DG Cook, eds. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Hannan CA. 1981. Polychaete larval settlement: Correspondence of patterns in suspended jar collectors and in the adjacent natural habitat in Monterey Bay, California. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26(1) pp. 159-171.
  • Henriksson R. 1969. Influence of pollution on the bottom fauna of the sound (Oresund). Oikos, Vol. 20(2) pp. 507-523.
  • Laufer H and WJ Biggers. 2001. Unifying concepts learned from methyl farnesoate for invertebrate reproduction and post-embryonic development. American Zoologist 41:442-457.
  • Levin L, Caswell H, Bridges T, DiBacco C, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1996. Demographic responses of estuarine polychaetes to pollutants: Life table response experiments. Ecological Applications, Vol. 6(4) pp. 1295-1313.
  • Magnum CP and W van Winkle. 1973. Response of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist 13:529-541.
  • McCall PL. 1977. Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. Marine Research 35:221-266.
  • Nelson WG and MA Capone. 1990. Experimental studies of predation on polychaetes associated with seagrass beds. Estuaries, Vol. 13(1) pp. 51-58.
  • NOAA National Benthic Inventory (NBI). Undated. Capitella capitata collection information. Available online.
  • Petraitis P. 1985. Females inhibit males' propensity to develop into simultaneous hermaphrodites in Capitella species I (Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin, Vol. 168(3) pp. 395-402.
  • Qian PY and FS Chia. 1994. In situ measurement of recruitment, mortality, growth, and fecundity of Capitella sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Ecology Progress Series 111:53-62.
  • Reish DJ. 1957. The relationship of the polychaetous annelid Capitella capitata (Fabricius), to waste discharges of biological origin. United States Public Health Services. 208: 195-200.
  • Rosenberg R. 1976. Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos, Vol. 27(3) pp. 414-427.
  • Sears NE and AJ Mueller. 1989. A survey of the polychaetes of Bolivar Flats and Big Reef, Galveston, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 34:150-154.
  • Tenore KR. 1977 Growth of Capitella capitata cultured on various levels of detrit.us derlved from different sources. Limnology and Oceanography 22:936-941.
  • Tenore K and RB Hanson. 1980. Availability of detritus of different types and ages to a polychaete macroconsumer, Capitella capitata. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 25(3) pp. 553-558.
  • Tenore KR amd EJ Chesney, Jr. 1985. The effects of interaction of rate of food supply and population density on the bioenergetics of the opportunistic polychaete, Capitella capitata (type I ). Limnology and Oceanography 30:1188-1195.
  • Tsutsumi H and T Kikuchi. 1984.Study of the life history of Capitella capitata (Polychaeta: Capitellidae) in Amakusa, South Japan including a comparison with other geographical regions. Marine Biology 80:315-321.
  • Ward TJ, and PA Hutchings PA. 1996. Effects of trace metals on infaunal species composition in polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediment near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135:123-135.
  • Warren LM. 1977. The ecology of Capitella capitata in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57:151-159.
  • Wilson WH. 1990. Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:221-241.
  • Wu B, Qian P, and S Zhang S. 1988. Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao. Acta Oceanol Sinica 7: 442-458.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Capitella capitata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Capitella capitata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic/Ecological Importance: A large amount of trophic energy is transferred from Capitella capitata and other infaunal detritivores to benthic consumer levels (Marsh and Tenore 1990). Additionally, Capitella capitata is commonly employed as a pollution indicator species in environmental assessment studies (Reish 1957, Henriksson 1969).
  • Biggers WJ and H Laufer. 1996. Detection of juvenile hormone-active compounds by larvae of the marine annelid Capitella sp. I. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 32:475-484.
  • Bridges TS, Levin LA, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1994. Effects of sediment amended with sewage, algae, or hydrocarbons on growth and reproduction in two opportunistic polychaetes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 77:99-119.
  • Bridges TS. 1996. Effects of organic additions to sediment, and maternal age and size, on patterns of offspring investment and performance in two opportunistic deposit-feeding polychaetes. Marine Biology 125:345-357.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985a. Oscillations of laboratory populations of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I): Their cause and implications for natural populations. Marine Ecology Progress Series 20:289-296.
  • Chesney EJ and KR Tenore. 1985b. Effects of predation and disturbance on the population growth and dynamics of the polychaete Capitella capitata (type I). Marine Biology 85:77-82.
  • Cuomo MC. 1985. Sulphide as a larval settlement cue for Capitella sp I Biogeochemistry. Vol.1(2): pp. 169-181.Dublilier N. 1988. Hv2S: A Settlement cue or a toxic substance for Capitella sp. I larvae? Biological Bulletin, Vol. 174(1) pp. 30-38.
  • Fauchald K and PA Jumars. 1979. The diet of worms: A study of polychaete feeding guilds. Oceanography and Marine Biology Annual Review 17:193-284.
  • Forbes VE and P Calow. 2002. Population growth rate as a basis for ecological risk assessment of toxic chemicals. Philosophical Transactions: Biological Sciences, Vol. 357 (1425), Population Growth Rate: Determining Factors and Role in Population Regulation. pp. 1299-1306.
  • Forbes TL and GR Lopez. 1990. The effect of food concentration, body size, and environmental oxygen tension on the growth of the deposit-feeding polychaete, Capitella species 1. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 35 (7) pp. 1535-1544.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1974. Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes. Marine Research, 32:253-284.
  • Grassle JF and JP Grassle. 1976. Sibling species in the marine pollution indicator Capitella. Science 192: 567-569.Grassle JP. 1980. Polychaete sibling species. Pp. 25-32 in Aquatic Oligochaete Biology, RO Brinkhurst and DG Cook, eds. Plenum Press, New York.
  • Hannan CA. 1981. Polychaete larval settlement: Correspondence of patterns in suspended jar collectors and in the adjacent natural habitat in Monterey Bay, California. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 26(1) pp. 159-171.
  • Henriksson R. 1969. Influence of pollution on the bottom fauna of the sound (Oresund). Oikos, Vol. 20(2) pp. 507-523.
  • Laufer H and WJ Biggers. 2001. Unifying concepts learned from methyl farnesoate for invertebrate reproduction and post-embryonic development. American Zoologist 41:442-457.
  • Levin L, Caswell H, Bridges T, DiBacco C, Cabrera D, and G Plaia. 1996. Demographic responses of estuarine polychaetes to pollutants: Life table response experiments. Ecological Applications, Vol. 6(4) pp. 1295-1313.
  • Magnum CP and W van Winkle. 1973. Response of aquatic invertebrates to declining oxygen conditions. American Zoologist 13:529-541.
  • McCall PL. 1977. Community patterns and adaptive strategies of the infaunal benthos of Long Island Sound. Marine Research 35:221-266.
  • Nelson WG and MA Capone. 1990. Experimental studies of predation on polychaetes associated with seagrass beds. Estuaries, Vol. 13(1) pp. 51-58.
  • NOAA National Benthic Inventory (NBI). Undated. Capitella capitata collection information. Available online.
  • Petraitis P. 1985. Females inhibit males' propensity to develop into simultaneous hermaphrodites in Capitella species I (Polychaeta). Biological Bulletin, Vol. 168(3) pp. 395-402.
  • Qian PY and FS Chia. 1994. In situ measurement of recruitment, mortality, growth, and fecundity of Capitella sp. (Annelida: Polychaeta). Marine Ecology Progress Series 111:53-62.
  • Reish DJ. 1957. The relationship of the polychaetous annelid Capitella capitata (Fabricius), to waste discharges of biological origin. United States Public Health Services. 208: 195-200.
  • Rosenberg R. 1976. Benthic faunal dynamics during succession following pollution abatement in a Swedish estuary. Oikos, Vol. 27(3) pp. 414-427.
  • Sears NE and AJ Mueller. 1989. A survey of the polychaetes of Bolivar Flats and Big Reef, Galveston, Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 34:150-154.
  • Tenore KR. 1977 Growth of Capitella capitata cultured on various levels of detrit.us derlved from different sources. Limnology and Oceanography 22:936-941.
  • Tenore K and RB Hanson. 1980. Availability of detritus of different types and ages to a polychaete macroconsumer, Capitella capitata. Limnology and Oceanography, Vol. 25(3) pp. 553-558.
  • Tenore KR amd EJ Chesney, Jr. 1985. The effects of interaction of rate of food supply and population density on the bioenergetics of the opportunistic polychaete, Capitella capitata (type I ). Limnology and Oceanography 30:1188-1195.
  • Tsutsumi H and T Kikuchi. 1984.Study of the life history of Capitella capitata (Polychaeta: Capitellidae) in Amakusa, South Japan including a comparison with other geographical regions. Marine Biology 80:315-321.
  • Ward TJ, and PA Hutchings PA. 1996. Effects of trace metals on infaunal species composition in polluted intertidal and subtidal marine sediment near a lead smelter, Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Marine Ecology Progress Series 135:123-135.
  • Warren LM. 1977. The ecology of Capitella capitata in British waters. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 57:151-159.
  • Wilson WH. 1990. Competition and predation in marine soft-sediment communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:221-241.
  • Wu B, Qian P, and S Zhang S. 1988. Morphology, reproduction, ecology and isoenzyme electrophoresis of Capitella complex in Qingdao. Acta Oceanol Sinica 7: 442-458.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Capitella capitata

The Capitella capitata is a polychaete worm that grows up to 10 cm in length. It is often blood-red in colour. The species is sedentary and fragile, with a flexible body.

Capitella capitata occurs on muddy sand, gritty sand, fine sand or rich mud on the lower shore to sub-littoral. It may be found under pebbles or small stones, with the burrows at or near the surface of the sediment.

It is an opportunistic species tolerant of stressful conditions, and often found in polluted waters (sewer discharges, hydrocarbons, metals ...) where it out-competes less tolerant species. A large abundance of C. capitata can be seen as an indication of polluted waters.[1]

C. capitata is able to vary its reproductive strategy in accordance with its current environmental conditions. If local conditions are favorable, it can produce benthic larvae facilitating quick exploitation of local concentrations of organic matter. In contrast, C. capitata can produce planktonic larvae if there is a need to discover new habitats.[2]

  1. ^ R.B. Clark, "Marine Pollution", Clarendon Press, 1997
  2. ^ J.F. Grassle and J.P. Grassle, "Opportunistic life histories and genetic systems in marine benthic polychaetes", J. Mar. Res. 3:253-284, 1974


Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!