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Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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introduced; St. Pierre and Miquelon; Alta., B.C., Man., N.B., Nfld. and Labr. (Nfld)., N.S., Ont., Que., Sask.; Alaska, Conn., Maine., Mass., Mich., Minn., N.H., N.Y., Oreg., Pa., Vt.; Europe; nw Africa; Asia.
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?Anhui, ?Fujian, ?Guangxi, ?Guizhou, Heilongjiang, ?Henan, Hubei, ?Hunan, Jiangsu, Jilin, Liaoning, Nei Mongol, Qinghai, ?Shaanxi, ?Shandong, ?Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, Xinjiang, Xizang, Yunnan, ?Zhejiang [Japan, Kazakhstan, Korea, Kyrgyzstan, Mongolia, Russia; Europe, North America].
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Europe, W. Asia, Himalaya (Kashmir to Nepal), Tibet, Siberia, China, Japan, N. America.
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Distribution: Europe except the Mediterranean, subarctic and temperate Asia, in the South at high elevation only, North America, Greenland. Occasionally as an alien elsewhere.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants perennial, glabrous or nearly so, with short and relatively thin, horizontal or slightly oblique rootstock (usually not reaching deep into substrate) and ± crowded 2d-order roots. Stems erect or rarely ascending, 1 to several from base, branched in distal 2 (in inflorescence), (25-)30-90(-110) cm. Leaves: ocrea normally laciniate; blade oblong-ovate, ovate-lanceolate, to lanceolate, 4-10(-15) × 1-4(-6) cm, normally more than 2.5 times as long as wide, base sagittate (with acute lobes directed downward, ± parallel to petiole), margins entire, normally flat, apex acute or subacute. Inflorescences terminal, occupying distal 3 of stem, usually lax and interrupted especially in proximal part, narrowly paniculate, cylindric (with 1st-order branches simple, or with few 2d-order branches). Pedicels articulated near middle, filiform, 2-5(-6) mm, articulation distinct. Flowers (2-)4-8(-10) in whorls; inner tepals orbiculate, occasionally broadly ovate, 3-4(-5) × 3-4 mm, base rounded or cordate, apex obtuse; tubercles small or occasionally absent. Achenes black to dark brown, 1.8-2.5 × 1.2-1.5 mm, shiny, smooth. 2n = 14 (pistillate plants), 15 (staminate plants).
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Elevation Range

2100-4100 m
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Description

Perennial. Stem erect, up to 120 cm high, leafy. Leaves hastate of variable size; basal leaves 2-4 times as long as broad, oblong-elliptic, with acute basal downwards directed lobes and long petioles; stem leaves upwards gradualy smaller and with shroter petioles, the uppermost sessile with clasping basal lobes. Taste of leaves sour. Panicle narrow, loose with non fasciculate simple or little divided branches. Flowers dioecious, arranged in few flowerd whorls. External perianth segments reflexed, appressed to the articulate pedicel. Valves suborbicular, 3-3.5 mm in diam., membranous, finely reticulate, with a small basal reflexed grain. Nut 1.8-2.2 mm long, dark brown.
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Description

Herbs perennial, dioecious, with a short and relatively thin horizontal or slightly oblique rootstock, usually not reaching deep into substrate and with rather crowded secondary roots. Stems erect, 40-100 cm tall, grooved, glabrous, usually simple. Basal leaves ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, base sagittate, 3-12 × 2-4 cm, margin entire, apex acute, basal lobes acute at apices; cauline leaves small; petiole short or nearly absent; ocrea fugacious, white, membranous. Inflorescence terminal, paniculate, lax; branches reddish green, slender, simple or with a few secondary branches. Flowers unisexual. Pedicel slender, articulate at middle. Male flowers: outer tepals erect, small; inner tepals elliptic, ca. 3 mm. Female flowers: outer tepals elliptic, reflexed in fruit; inner tepals enlarged in fruit; valves nearly orbicular (to broadly ovate), 3.5-4 mm in diam., with small recurved tubercles at base of valves, net veined, base cordate, margin entire, apex obtuse. Achenes blackish brown, shiny, ellipsoid, trigonous, ca. 2 mm. Fl. May-Jul, fr. Jun-Aug. 2n = 14*, 15*, 22*.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Acetosa pratensis Miller; Rumex acetosa subsp. pratensis (Miller) A. Blytt & O. C. Dahl
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Synonym

Acetosa pratensis Miller.
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Ecology

Habitat

Waste places, meadows, cultivated fields, alluvial habitats; 0-1000m.
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A fairly common species of moist areas especially on slopes and moist rocks, grows on higher altitudes between 2000-4500 m. Resembles with Rumex hastatus but differs by having herbaceous habit, small panicle and less freely branched stem.
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Mountain slopes, forest margins, moist valleys; 400-4100 m.
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
colony of sporangium of Peronospora rumicis parasitises live Rumex acetosa ssp. acetosa

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous telium of Puccinia acetosae parasitises live leaf of Rumex acetosa ssp. acetosa
Other: major host/prey

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Foodplant / gall
larva of Apion affine causes gall of inflorescence? of Rumex acetosa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion cruentatum feeds within root of Rumex acetosa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion curtirostre feeds within stem of Rumex acetosa

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion violaceum feeds within stem of Rumex acetosa

Foodplant / parasite
embedded sorus of Bauhinus stygius parasitises live leaf of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: season: 6-9
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / saprobe
sometimes clumped apothecium of Crocicreas cyathoideum var. cacaliae is saprobic on dead stem of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: season: 7-9

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / mobile cased feeder
larva of Cryptocephalus exiguus grazes in mobile case on tepal of fallen fruit of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed perithecium of Diaporthe pardalota is saprobic on dead stem of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: season: 1-8

Foodplant / feeds on
apothecium of Hymenoscyphus rumicis feeds on fallen fruit of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: season: 6-8

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed pseudothecium of Keissleriella gallica is saprobic on dead, patchily blackened stem of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: season: 7-8

Foodplant / saprobe
immersed, gregarious pycnidium of Phomopsis coelomycetous anamorph of Phomopsis durandiana is saprobic on dead stem of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: season: 5-8

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous, gregarious pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta acetosae causes spots on live leaf of Rumex acetosa

Foodplant / feeds on
pycnidium of Phyllosticta coelomycetous anamorph of Phyllosticta straminella feeds on Rumex acetosa

Foodplant / spot causer
clustered aecium of Puccinia phragmitis causes spots on live leaf of Rumex acetosa

Foodplant / spot causer
hypophyllous colony of Ramularia anamorph of Ramularia pratensis causes spots on live leaf of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: season: 5-10

Foodplant / parasite
colony of Ramularia anamorph of Ramularia rubella parasitises live leaf of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: season: 3-11

Foodplant / spot causer
numerous, crwoded, blackish, up to 1mm broad, emerging on both sides of leaf, but mainly above. pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria acetosae causes spots on live leaf of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: season: 7-9

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Uromyces acetosae parasitises live Rumex acetosa
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
embedded sorus of Ustilago stygia infects and damages live inflorescence of Rumex acetosa

Foodplant / spot causer
immersed pseudothecium of Venturia rumicis causes spots on fading leaf of Rumex acetosa
Remarks: season: 11-7

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering/Fruiting

Flowering spring-early summer.
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: July-September.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Rumex acetosa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rumex acetosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Sorrel

This article is about common sorrel, Rumex acetosa. For other uses of "sorrel", see sorrel (disambiguation).
To be distinguished from Hibiscus sabdariffa, the sorrel of the Caribbean, used to make a beverage.
"Narrow-leaved sorrel" and variants redirect here. These terms may also refer to curled dock (R. crispus).
Flowering sorrel.

Common sorrel or garden sorrel (Rumex acetosa), often simply called sorrel, is a perennial herb in the family Polygonaceae. Other names for sorrel include spinach dock and narrow-leaved dock. It is a common plant in grassland habitats and is cultivated as a garden herb or leaf vegetable (pot herb).

Description[edit]

Sorrel (aveluk in Armenian) picked fresh from Mount Ara and braided before selling for ease of drying and extended use.

Sorrel is a slender herbaceous perennial plant about 60 cm high, with roots that run deep into the ground, as well as juicy stems and edible, arrow-shaped (sagittate) leaves. The lower leaves are 7 to 15 cm in length with long petioles and a membranous ocrea formed of fused, sheathing stipules. The upper ones are sessile, and frequently become crimson. It has whorled spikes of reddish-green flowers, which bloom in early summer, becoming purplish.[1][2] The species is dioecious, with stamens and pistils on different plants.[2]

The leaves are eaten by the larvae of several species of Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) including the blood-vein moth.

Sorrel soup with egg and croutons; Polish cuisine.
Hyogo,Japan

Distribution[edit]

Rumex acetosa occurs in grassland habitats throughout Europe from the northern Mediterranean coast to the north of Scandinavia and in parts of Central Asia. It occurs as an introduced species in parts of North America.[1]

Uses[edit]

Common sorrel has been cultivated for centuries. The leaves may be puréed in soups and sauces or added to salads; they have a flavour that is similar to kiwifruit or sour wild strawberries. The plant's sharp taste is due to oxalic acid. In small quantities sorrel is harmless; in large quantities it can be fatal.[3]

In northern Nigeria, sorrel is known as yakuwa or sure (pronounced suuray) in Hausa or karassu in Kanuri. It is also used in stews usually in addition to spinach. In some Hausa communities, it is steamed and made into salad using kuli-kuli (traditional roasted peanut cakes with oil extracted), salt, pepper, onion and tomatoes. The recipe varies according to different levels of household income. A drink called solo is made from a decoction of the plant calyx.

In Romania, wild or garden sorrel, known as măcriş or ştevie, is used to make sour soups, stewed with spinach, added fresh to lettuce and spinach in salads or over open sandwiches.

In Russia and Ukraine it is called shchavel' (щавель) and is used to make soup called green borscht. It is used as a soup ingredient in other countries, too (e.g., Lithuania, where it is known as rūgštynė).

In Hungary the plant and its leaves is known as sóska (/ʃoːʃkɔ/ or "SHO-sh-kaw"). It is called kuzukulağı ('lamb's ear') in Turkish. In Polish it is called szczaw (pronounced /ʂʈʂaf/).

In Croatia and Bulgaria is used for soups or with mashed potatoes, or as part of a traditional dish containing eel and other green herbs.

In rural Greece it is used with spinach, leeks, and chard in spanakopita.

In the Flemish speaking part of Belgium it is called "zurkel" and canned pureed sorrel is mixed with mashed potatoes and eaten with sausages, meatballs or fried bacon, as a traditional winter dish.

In Vietnam it is called Rau Chua and is used to added fresh to lettuce and in salads for Bánh Xēo.

In Portugal, it's called "azeda" (sour), and is usually chewed raw.

In India, the leaves are called chukkakura in Telugu and are used in making delicious recipes. Chukkakura pappu soup made with yellow lentils which is also called toor dal in India.

In Albania it is called lëpjeta, the leaves are simmered and served cold marinated in olive oil, it is used in soups, and even as an ingredient for filling byrek pies ( byrek me lakra ).

This name can be confused with the hibiscus calyces or Hibiscus Tea.

Subspecies[edit]

Several subspecies have been named.[2] Not all are cultivated:

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Blamey, M.; Fitter, R.; Fitter, A (2003). Wild flowers of Britain and Ireland: The Complete Guide to the British and Irish Flora. London: A & C Black. p. 64. ISBN 978-1408179505. 
  2. ^ a b c Stace, C.A. (2010). New flora of the British isles (Third ed.). Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press. p. 446. ISBN 9780521707725. 
  3. ^ "Sorrel-Uses And Side Effects". Womens-health-club.com. Retrieved 2011-09-21. 
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Rumex thyrsiflorus

Rumex thyrsiflorus, also known commonly as the compact dock or thyrse sorrel, is a perennial herb, which grows in meadows and wasteland in most parts of Europe. It is somewhat similar to common sorrel (Rumex acetosa).

Rumex thyrsiflorus, also known as commonly as the compact dock' or thyrse sorrel.

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Notes

Comments

Rumex acetosa is morphologically uniform in North America. It sometimes is misidentified as R. hastatulus orR. acetosella. Collections from North America are few in herbaria, and this species probably is not as common in the flora area as has been generally assumed. Some literature reports for R. acetosa may refer to other taxa of the species group.
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