Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Associations

Foodplant / parasite
mostly epiphyllous telium of Puccinia pazschkei var. pazschkei parasitises live leaf of Saxifraga aizoon

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Saxifraga paniculata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T5 - Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Saxifraga paniculata

Saxifraga paniculata (also known by the English common names White Mountain saxifrage, alpine saxifrage, encrusted saxifrage, lifelong saxifrage and livelong saxifrage,[1] lime-encrusted saxifrage[2] and silver saxifrage) is a species of saxifrage native to the United States, Europe and Asia.

Taxonomy and naming[edit]

Saxifraga paniculata was first formally described in the eighth edition of The Gardeners Dictionary by the Scottish botanist Philip Miller in 1768 [3] and is placed in the genus Saxifraga (the saxifrages) and in the Saxifragaceae family.[3] The generic name Saxifraga literally means "stone-breaker", from Latin saxum ("rock" or "stone") + frangere ("to break"). It is usually thought to indicate a medicinal use for treatment of urinary calculi (such as kidney stones), rather than breaking rocks apart.[4][5]

Description[edit]

Saxifraga paniculata is a perennial and stoloniferous herbaceous plant with flowering stems 10–30 cm in height.[2][6] The most easily identifiable feature of S. paniculata is its highly dense basal rosette of leaves, which are leathery, flat and stiff.[2][6] 1–3 cm long, the oblong to ovate leaves are densely toothed and have fine leaf margins; a lime-encrusted white pore is present at the base of each leaf.[2][6] The rosettes produce erect flowering stems (though nothing might be produced for a few years), whilst the rosettes themselves grow at the end of runners (horizontal, long stolons).[2][6]

Flowering stems have reduced and scattered leaves which terminate in a somewhat elongated cluster.[2] The flowers of Saxifraga paniculata are white, approximately 1 cm across and have dots which are either purplish or red.[2] S. paniculata flowers from mid-to-late June to early August,[2] and produces perfect flowers (as it has both stamens and carpels.[6] The flowers themselves have five petals, two styles, one inferior ovary and a two-beaked seed capsule.[6] Warming (1909) noted that the flowers of S. paniculata are protandrous, in the sense that even before the stigmas become receptive the flowers make and disperse pollen.[2] However, as discussed in the 'Ecology' section below, S. panicuulata can self-pollinate.

Saxifraga paniculata can sometimes be mistaken for another plant in the same genus, Saxifraga tricuspidata (prickly saxifrage); whilst S. tricuspidata does grow in a similar range, it can be differentiated from S. paniculata by its lack of lime-encrusted pores and by its crowded and much narrower leaves, which apart from three terminating stiff spine-tipped teeth have otherwise smooth margins.[2]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Growing in the Circumboreal Region, Saxifraga paniculata can be found throughout Central Europe, Greenland, Iceland and Scandinavia, as well as in the Caucasus[6] and in North America where it can be found in the northern Great Lakes region, New England and New York.[2] Only historical records document it in Maine, whilst S. paniculata is present, though considered a rarity, in Vermont, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland Island, New Brunswick, Minnesota and Labrador.[2]

Saxifraga paniculata is a calciphile, and hence is found in calcareous habitats: an example of which is in a crevice of a basic rock (including basalt and volcanic rock conglomerates).[2] Of the rock crevices or rock ledges it does grow on, S. paniculata prefers the shady ones.[6]

Ecology[edit]

Its ability to close its leaf rosettes when undergoing deleterious environmental conditions such as excessive heat and droughts gives Saxifraga paniculata a very high resistance to sustained photoinhibition and irreversible dehydration;[2] a paper published by Hacker and Neuner in 2006 found that S. paniculata was more resistant to cold induced photoinhibition in winter than any other evergreen subalpine species that the group had studied.[2] Due to the short growing season and the possible lack of pollinators, S. paniculata (like many arctic plants) can self-pollinate - whilst usually avoided in plant species as there is no potential for genetic variation in offspring, it does still ensure in dire conditions that seed is produced and dispersed.[2]

In the wild, Saxifraga paniculata has been observed with many associated species, including but not limited to: Trisetum spicatum, Polygonum viviparum, Polypodium virginianum, Sagina nodosa, Woodsia alpina, Campanula rotundifolia, Rubus pubescens, Aralia nudicaulis, Tortella tortuosa, Aquilegia canadensis, Carex eburnea and Woodsia glabella, as well as lichen cover.[2][6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Vernacular Names for Saxifraga paniculata". GBIF Backbone Taxonomy. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Penskar, M. R. (2008). "Special Plant Abstract for Saxifraga paniculata (encrusted saxifrage)". Lansing, Michigan: Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Archived from the original on 18 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  3. ^ a b S.G. Aiken, M.J. Dallwitz, L.L. Consaul, C.L. McJannet, R.L. Boles, G.W. Argus, J.M. Gillett, P.J. Scott, R. Elven, M.C. LeBlanc, L.J. Gillespie, A.K. Brysting, H. Solstad, and J.G. Harris (May 2011). "Saxifraga paniculata Mill.". Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  4. ^ "Saxifraga". National Plant Collections. Cambridge University Botanic Garden. Archived from the original on 19 December 2013. Retrieved 19 December 2013. 
  5. ^ D. A. Webb & R. J. Gornall (1989). Saxifrages of Europe. Christopher Helm. p. 19. ISBN 0-7470-3407-9. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Species profile: Saxifraga paniculata P. Mill.". Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. Archived from the original on 18 December 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Kartesz (1994 checklist) includes Saxifraga aizoon var. neogaea in S. paniculata. Kartesz (1999) treats it as a subspecies of S. paniculata.

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