The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
  • 2011. Lamiales of North America Update
  • Acta Horti Gothoburgensis 20(4): 148. 1956. (Acta Horti Gothob.)
  • Böcher, T. W. 1978. Greenlands Flora 326 pp.
  • Böcher, T. W., K. Holmen & K. Jacobsen. 1968. Fl. Greenland (ed. 2) 312 pp.
  • Fernald, M. 1950. Manual (ed. 8) i–lxiv, 1–1632. American Book Co., New York.
  • Gleason, H. A. 1968. The Sympetalous Dicotyledoneae. vol. 3. 596 pp. In H. A. Gleason Ill. Fl. N. U.S. (ed. 3). New York Botanical Garden, New York.
  • Moss, E. H. 1983. Fl. Alberta (ed. 2) i–xii, 1–687. University of Toronto Press, Toronto.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Scoggan, H. J. 1979. Dicotyledoneae (Loasaceae to Compositae). Part 4. 1117–1711 pp. In Fl. Canada. National Museums of Canada, Ottawa.
  • Species Plantarum 1: 11–12. 1753. (1 May 1753) (Sp. Pl.)


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