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Overview

Brief Summary

Introduction

Ilex paraguariensis is a member of the holly family (Aquifoliaceae) native to subtropical South America.The leaves of this tree are used to produce a herbal infusion called yerba mate or Paraguayan tea.It is widely used in Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, and its consumption often constitutes a form of social ritual.Furthermore, some medicinal properties have been attributed to yerba mate, including:
  • stimulant to the central nervous system
  • diuretic
  • hypocholesterolemic
  • anti-inflammatory
  • antioxidant
  • anti-rheumatic
  • beneficial for the cardiovascular system
Paraguayan tea has been traditionally used by indigenous people and is nowadays one of the most important economic products in South America.
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Taxonomy

Ilex paraguariensis is a dioecious (meaning it has separate male and female plants), evergreen tree that can reach up to 18m high.The bark of the trunk is:
  • smooth
  • shiny
  • brown, brown-greyish, sometimes green
The simple, alternate leaves:
  • are 7–11 cm long
  • are 3–5.5 cm wide
  • are oblanceolate
  • are oblong or oval in shape
  • have prickly dentate margins
  • are thick, glossy and leathery
  • are dark-green on upper surface and paler on lower surface
The petioles are dark-red, and about 1.27 cm in length.The flowers are unisexual by abortion (so the plant is functionally dioecious) and both female and male flowers form corymbose inflorescences (small clusters) in the axils of the leaves. Flowers are tiny with 4 valvate sepals, each 1mm by 1mm, joined right at the base, and 4 whitish petals, each about 3mm by 2mm and also joined at the base.There are 4 stamens in male flowers but these are reduced to sterile staminodes in the female flowers.The fruits are:
  • globose
  • dark red or purple drupes
  • about the size of small peas (4–6 mm in diameter)
  • contain 4 stones or seeds
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Yerba Mate

Mate (Spanish pronunciation: [ˈmate], Portuguese pronunciation: ['mätʃi]), also known as chimarrão (Portuguese: [ʃimaˈhɐ̃w̃]) or cimarrón, is a traditional South American infused drink, particularly in Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, southern states of Brazil, south of Chile, the Bolivian Chaco, and to some extent, Syria and Lebanon. It is prepared from steeping dried leaves of yerba maté (llex paraguariensis, known in Portuguese as erva mate) in hot water.

Mate is served with a metal straw from a shared hollow calabash gourd. The straw is called a bombilla in some Latin American countries, a bomba in Portuguese, and a bombija or, more generally, a masassa (type of straw) in Arabic. The straw is traditionally made of silver. Modern, commercially available straws are typically made of nickel silver, called Alpaca; stainless steel, or hollow-stemmed cane. The gourd is known as a mate or a guampa; while in Brazil, it has the specific name of cuia. Even if the water is supplied from a modern thermos, the infusion is traditionally drunk from mates or cuias.

As with other brewed herbs, yerba mate leaves are dried, chopped, and ground into a powdery mixture called yerba. The bombilla acts as both a straw and a sieve. The submerged end is flared, with small holes or slots that allow the brewed liquid in, but block the chunky matter that makes up much of the mixture. A modern bombilla design uses a straight tube with holes, or spring sleeve to act as a sieve.

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Comprehensive Description

Ethnobotanical

Scientific studies attribute yerba mate’s medicinal properties to its chemical composition.Yerba mate contains saponins - water-soluble compounds found in many plants. Their properties include:
  • antiparasitic
  • hypocholesterolemic
  • anti-inflammatory
The compounds also account for the characteristic bitter flavour of mate tea.The class of purine alkaloids called xanthines - found in coffee as caffeine, and in chocolate as theobromine - is also present in yerba mate. These components give yerba mate the ability to stimulate the central nervous system.The principal constituents that account for the antioxidant capacity of yerba mate are polyphenols and caffeoyl derivative.Yerba mate is also diuretic, beneficial for the cardiovascular system and is thought to have potential in the management of obesity.Yerba mate also possesses a high concentration of vitamins (A, C, E, B1, B2, Niacin (B3), B5 and B Complex) and minerals (aluminium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel, potassium and zinc).Together these components make it a nutritious beverage.

Yerba mate adulterants
Ilex dumosa, which is found in the same habitats as Ilex paraguariensis, has been preferred as an adulterant or substitute for genuine yerba mate since colonial times.Other common Ilex species, such as Ilex argentina, Ilex brevicuspis,Ilex microdonta, Ilex pseudoboxus and Ilex theezans are also found as adulterants. These all have a different concentration of saponins, which directly affects the taste of the mate tea, and therefore its quality.
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Biology

Ilex paraguariensis flowers during the first month of spring.Pollination is entomophilous - the pollen is carried by insects, in this case by bees and flies.The fruit is a showy, dark red or purple small drupe that ripens throughout the autumn. Ilex paraguariensis is dispersed by birds which eat the fruits and subsequently pass the seeds out in their faeces.
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Distribution

Range Description

Occurring in the subtropical and temperate regions of South America.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
An understorey tree of mixed Araucaria forest.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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General Ecology

Distribution ecology

  • Itapuay (Maldonado, Tacuarembo, Treinta y Tres)
  • Argentina (Misiones and Northeast of Corrientes)
  • Paraguay (Alto Parana, Amambay, Caaguazu, Canendeyu, Central, Guaira, Itapua, Misiones, San Pedro)
It is also cultivated in Syria, Lebanon and Jordan.

Ecology
Wild Ilex paraguariensis grows intermingled with other trees in forests which occur along the banks of rivers and streams. The soils are usually clay or sand, high in phosphoric acid and potassium with an acidic pH.Growing in subtropical and temperate regions Ilex paraguariensis requires high humidity levels and more than 1,000mm precipitation per year, with the rainfall well distributed throughout the year. It occurs in regions with an average temperature of 21°C, however, yerba mate can withstand very low temperatures.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ilex paraguariensis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ilex paraguariensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ilex paraguensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LR/nt
Lower Risk/near threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
World Conservation Monitoring Centre

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Threats

Major Threats
For centuries the leaves have been used to make a tonic and stimulant drink. The rates of exploitation, in some areas, are believed to have caused a significant decline in population numbers.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Plantations have been set up, but the demand for leaves is still, apparently, greater than the supply from cultivated stands.
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Wikipedia

Yerba mate

Yerba mate (from Spanish [ˈʝeɾβa ˈmate]; Portuguese: erva-mate [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmatʃi]) is a species of the holly family (Aquifoliaceae), with the binomial name of Ilex paraguariensis.

It is well known as the source of the beverage called mate, Chimarrão, Tererê (or Tereré) and other variations, traditionally consumed in subtropical South America, particularly northeastern Argentina, Bolivia, Southern and Center-Western Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay.[1] It is also very popular in Syria where it is imported from Argentina.[citation needed] It was first used and cultivated by the Guaraní people and in some Tupí communities in southern Brazil, prior to the European colonization. It was scientifically classified by the Swiss botanist Moses Bertoni, who settled in Paraguay in 1895.[citation needed]

Description[edit]

Yerba mate, Ilex paraguariensis, begins as a shrub and then matures to a tree and can grow up to 15 metres (49 ft) tall. The leaves are evergreen, 7–110 millimetres (0.3–4.3 in) long and 30–55 millimetres (1.2–2.2 in) wide, with a serrated margin. The leaves are often called yerba (Spanish) or erva (Portuguese), both of which mean "herb". They contain caffeine (known in some parts of the world as mateine) and also contains related xanthine alkaloids and are harvested commercially.

The flowers are small, greenish-white, with four petals. The fruit is a red drupe 4–6 millimetres (0.16–0.24 in) in diameter.

Cultivation[edit]

Plantation in Misiones, Argentina.
New growth evident on young yerba mate plant

The Yerba mate plant is grown and processed in South America, specifically in northern Argentina (Corrientes, Misiones), Paraguay, Uruguay and southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul). Cultivators are known as yerbateros (Spanish) or ervateiros (Brazilian Portuguese).

Seeds used to germinate new plants are harvested from January until April only after they have turned dark purple. After harvest, they are submerged in water in order to eliminate floating non-viable seeds and detritus like twigs, leaves, etc. New plants are started between March and May. For plants established in pots, transplanting takes place April through September. Plants with bare roots are transplanted only during the months of June and July.[2]

Many of the natural enemies of yerba mate are difficult to control in a plantation setting. Insect pests include Gyropsylla spegazziniana, an insect that lays eggs in branches, Hedyphates betulinus, an insect that weakens the tree and makes it more susceptible to mold and mildew, "Perigonia lusca", an insect that eats the leaves, and several species of mites.[2]

When yerba mate is harvested, the branches are dried sometimes with a wood fire, imparting a smoky flavor. The plant Ilex paraguariensis can vary in strength of the flavor, caffeine levels and other nutrients depending on whether it is a male or female plant. Female plants tend to be milder in flavor, and lower in caffeine. They are also relatively scarce in the areas where yerba mate is planted and cultivated.[3]

According to FAO, Brazil is the biggest producer of mate in the world with 434,727 MT (53%), followed by Argentina with 300,000 MT (37%) and Paraguay with 76,663 MT (10%).[4]

Use as a beverage[edit]

Main article: Mate (beverage)
Steaming mate infusion in its customary gourd

The infusion, called mate in Spanish-speaking countries or chimarrão in south Brazil, is prepared by filling a container, typically a gourd, about three-quarters full with dry leaves (and twigs) of the mate plant, and filling it up with water at a temperature of 70–80 °C (158–176 °F), hot but not boiling. Sugar may or may not be added; and the mate may be prepared with cold water ("tereré").[5]

Drinking mate with friends from a hollow gourd (also called a guampa, porongo or mate in Spanish, or cabaça or cuia in Portuguese, or zucca in Italian) through a metal straw (a bombilla in Spanish, bomba in Portuguese), refilling and passing to the next person after finishing the few mouthfuls of beverage, is a common social practice in Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil among people of all ages.

Yerba mate is most popular in Uruguay, where people are seen walking on the street carrying the "mate" and "termo" (thermal vacuum flask) in their arms and where you can find hot water stations to refill the "termo" while on the road. In Argentina 5 kg (11 lb) of yerba mate is consumed annually per capita; in Uruguay, the largest consumer, consumption is 10 kg (22 lb).[6] The amount of the herb used to prepare the infusion is very much greater than that used for tea and other beverages, accounting for the large weight used.[7]

The flavor of brewed mate resembles an infusion of vegetables, herbs, and grass, and is reminiscent of some varieties of green tea. Some consider the flavor to be very agreeable, but it is generally bitter if steeped in boiling water. Flavored mate is also sold, in which the mate leaves are blended with other herbs (such as peppermint) or citrus rind.[8]

In Paraguay, Brazil and Argentina, a toasted version of mate, known as mate cocido (Paraguay), chá mate (Brazil) or just mate, is sold in teabags and in a loose leaf form. It is often served sweetened in specialized shops or on the street, either hot or iced, pure or with fruit juice (especially lime) or milk. In Argentina and southern Brazil, this is commonly consumed for breakfast or in a café for afternoon tea, often with a selection of sweet pastries.

An iced, sweetened version of toasted mate is sold as an uncarbonated soft drink, with or without fruit flavoring.[9][better source needed] In Brazil, this cold version of chá mate is specially popular in South and Southeast regions, and can easily be found in retail stores in the same cooler as soft-drinks.[10] Mate batido, which is toasted, has less of a bitter flavor and more of a spicy fragrance. Mate batido becomes creamy when shaken. Mate batido is more popular in the coastal cities of Brazil, as opposed to the far southern states, where it is consumed in the traditional way (green, consumed with a silver straw from a shared gourd), and called chimarrão.and in Argentina, this is called cimarrón.[11]

In Paraguay, western Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, west of São Paulo) and the Argentine littoral, a mate infusion, called tereré in Spanish and tererê in Portuguese, is also consumed as a cold or iced beverage, usually sucked out of a horn cup called guampa with a bombilla. Tereré can be prepared with cold water (the most common way in Paraguay), or fruit juice (the most common way in Argentina). The version with water is bitterer; fruit juice acts as a sweetener. Medicinal or culinary herbs, known as yuyos (weeds), may be crushed with a pestle and mortar, and added to the water for taste or medicinal reasons. Tereré is most popular in Paraguay, Brazil, and the Litoral (northeast Argentina).[12]

In the same way as people meet for tea or coffee, friends often gather and drink mate (matear) in Argentina, southern Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay. Sharing mate is almost a ritual, following customary rules. In warm weather the hot water is sometimes replaced by lemonade, but not in Uruguay.

The gourd (mate in Spanish) is given by the brewer to each person, often in a circle, in turn; the recipient does not give thanks, drinks the few mouthfuls and returns the mate to the brewer, who refills it and gives it to the next person in clockwise order.

During August, Paraguayans have a tradition of mixing mate with crushed leaves, stems, and flowers of the plant known as flor de agosto[13] (the flower of August, plants of the Senecio genus), which contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Modifying mate in this fashion is potentially toxic, as these alkaloids can cause a rare condition of the liver, veno-occlusive disease, which produces liver failure due to progressive occlusion of the small venous channels in the liver.[14]

In South Africa, mate is not well known, but has been introduced to Stellenbosch by a student who sells it nationally. In the tiny hamlet of Groot Marico in the northwest province, mate was introduced to the local tourism office by the returning descendants of the Boers, who in 1902 had emigrated to Patagonia in Argentina after losing the Anglo Boer War. It is also commonly consumed in Lebanon, Syria and some other parts of the Middle East, following emigration to South America and return by many people, and worldwide by expatriates from the Southern Cone.[15]

Chemical composition and properties[edit]

Xanthines[edit]

Yerba mate contains three xanthines: caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, the main one being caffeine. Caffeine content varies between 0.7% and 1.7% of dry weight[16] (compared with 0.4– 9.3% for tea leaves, 2.5–7.6% in guarana, and up to 3.2% for ground coffee);[17] theobromine content varies from 0.3% to 0.9%; theophylline is present in small quantities, or can be completely absent.[18] A substance previously called "mateine" is a synonym for caffeine (like theine and guaranine).

Mineral content[edit]

Yerba mate also contains elements such as potassium, magnesium and manganese.[19]

Health effects[edit]

As of 2011 there have not been any double-blind, randomized prospective clinical trials of mate drinking with respect to chronic disease.[20] However, mate does contain polyphenols, which may benefit the immune system,[citation needed] relieve allergies,[21] reduce the risk of diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia in mice,[22] contain compounds that, when extracted from green tea burns more calories,[citation needed] acts as an appetite suppressant and weight loss tool,[23] increases the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the heart,[citation needed] increases mental energy and focus,[24] improves mood,[25] and promotes a deeper sleep, however sleep may be affected in people who are sensitive to caffeine.[24]

Lipid metabolism[edit]

Some non-blinded studies have found mate consumption to be effective in lipid lowering.[20] Studies in animals and humans have observed hypocholesterolemic effects of Ilex paraguariensis aqueous extracts.

Cancer[edit]

Any hot consumption of mate is associated with oral cancer[26] esophageal cancer, cancer of the larynx,[27] and squamous cell of the head and neck.[28][29] Studies show a correlation between temperature and likelihood of cancer, making it unclear how much a role mate itself plays as a carcinogen.[27]

A study by the International Agency for Research on Cancer showed a limited correlation between oral cancer and the drinking of large quantities of "hot mate".[30] Smaller quantities (less than 1 liter daily) were found to increase risk only slightly, though alcohol and tobacco consumption had a synergistic effect on increasing oral, throat, and esophageal cancer. The study notes the possibility that increased risk could be credited to the high (near-boiling) temperatures at which the mate is consumed in its most traditional way, the chimarrão. The cellular damage caused by thermal stress could lead the esophagus and gastric epithelium to be metaplastic, adapting to the chronic injury. Then, mutations would lead to cellular dysplasia and to cancer.[citation needed] While the IARC study does not specify a specific temperature range for "hot mate", it lists general (not "hot") mate drinking separately, but does not possess the data to assess its effect. It also does not address, in comparison, any effect of consumption temperature with regard to coffee or tea.

Obesity[edit]

Yerba mate contains polyphenols, such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which work by inhibiting enzymes, like pancreatic lipase and lipoprotein lipase, that play a role in fat metabolism. Polyphenols can decrease serum levels of glucose, triglycerides, LDL and well as increase fat oxidation to promote decrease body weight and adiposity.[31] Yerba mate has also been shown to increase satiety by slowing gastric emptying. The effects on weight loss may be due to reduced absorption of dietary fats as well as through altered cholesterol metabolism.[citation needed] Despite yerba mate’s potential for reducing body weight, there are minimal data on the effects of yerba mate on weight in humans.[32] Therefore, yerba mate should not be recommended over diet and physical exercise.[33] and further study may be warranted.

Mechanism of action[edit]

E-NTPDase activity[edit]

Research also shows that mate preparations can alter the concentration of members of the ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (E-NTPDase) family, resulting in an elevated level of extracellular ATP, ADP, and AMP. This was found with chronic ingestion (15 days) of an aqueous mate extract, and may lead to a novel mechanism for manipulation of vascular regenerative factors, i.e., treating heart disease.[34]

Antioxidants[edit]

In an investigation of mate antioxidant activity, there was a correlation found between content of caffeoyl-derivatives and antioxidant capacity (AOC).[35][36] Amongst a group of Ilex species, Ilex paraguariensis antioxidant activity was the highest.[35]

Monoamine oxidase inhibition activity[edit]

A paper from the University of São Paulo cites yerba mate extract as an inhibitor of MAO activity; the maximal inhibition observed in vitro was 40–50%. A monoamine oxidase inhibitor is a type of antidepressant, so there is some data to suggest that yerba mate has a calming effect in this regard.[37]

History[edit]

Main article: History of yerba mate
Yerba mate growing in the wild

Mate was first consumed by the indigenous Guaraní and also spread in the Tupí people that lived in southern Brazil and Paraguay, and became widespread with the European colonization.[citation needed] In the Spanish colony of Paraguay in the late 16th century, both Spanish settlers and indigenous Guaranís, who had, to some extent, before the Spanish arrival, consumed it.[citation needed] Mate consumption spread in the 17th century to the River Plate and from there to Argentina, Chile, Bolivia and Peru.[citation needed] This widespread consumption turned it into Paraguay's main commodity above other wares, such as tobacco, and indigenous peoples labour was used to harvest wild stands.[citation needed]

In the mid 17th century, Jesuits managed to domesticate the plant and establish plantations in their Indian reductions in Misiones, Argentina, sparking severe competition with the Paraguayan harvesters of wild stands.[citation needed] After their expulsion in the 1770s, their plantations fell into decay, as did their domestication secrets.[citation needed] The industry continued to be of prime importance for the Paraguayan economy after independence, but development in benefit of the Paraguayan state halted after the War of the Triple Alliance (1864–1870) that devastated the country both economically and demographically.[citation needed] Some regions with mate plantations in Paraguay became Argentine territory.[citation needed]

Lithograph of José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, a 19th-century ruler of Paraguay, holding a mate and bombilla

Brazil then became the largest producer of mate.[38] In Brazilian and Argentine projects in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the plant was domesticated once again, opening the way for plantation systems.[citation needed] When Brazilian entrepreneurs turned their attention to coffee in the 1930s, Argentina, which had long been the prime consumer,[39] took over as the largest producer, resurrecting the economy in Misiones Province, where the Jesuits had once had most of their plantations. For years, the status of largest producer shifted between Brazil and Argentina.[39]

Now, Brazil is the largest producer, with 53%, followed by Argentina, 37% and Paraguay, 10%.[4]

In the city of Campo Largo, state of Paraná, Brazil, there is a Mate Historic Park (Portuguese: Parque Histórico do Mate), funded by that state's government, to educate people on the sustainable harvesting methods needed to maintain the integrity and vitality of the oldest wild forests of mate in the world. As of June 2014, however, the park is closed to public visitation.[40]

Nomenclature[edit]

The name given to the plant in Guaraní, language of the indigenous people who first cultivated and enjoyed mate, is ka'a, which has the same meaning as "herb".[citation needed] Congonha, in Portuguese, is derived from the Tupi expression, meaning something like "what keeps us alive", but a term rarely used nowadays.[citation needed] Mate is from the Quechua mati,[41] a word that means container for a drink, infusion of an herb, as well as gourd.[42] The word mate is used in both, Portuguese and Spanish languages.[citation needed]

The pronunciation of yerba mate in Spanish is [ˈʝe̞rβ̞ä ˈmäte̞][41] The accent on the word is on the first syllable, not the second as might be implied by the variant spelling maté.[41] The word hierba is Spanish for "herb"; yerba is a variant spelling of it which was quite common in Argentina.[43] (Nowadays in Argentina "yerba" refers exclusively to the "yerba mate" plant.[43]) Yerba mate, therefore, originally translated literally as the "gourd herb", i.e. the herb one drinks from a gourd.[citation needed]

The (Brazilian) Portuguese name is either erva-mate [ˈɛʁvɐ ˈmätʃi] (also pronounced [ˈɛrvɐ ˈmäte] or [ˈɛɾvɐ ˈmätɪ] in some regions), the most used term, or rarely "congonha" [kõˈɡõȷ̃ɐ], from Old Tupi kõ'gõi, which means "what sustains the being".[44] It is also used to prepare the drinks chimarrão (hot), tereré (cold) or chá mate (hot or cold). While the chá mate (tea) is made with the toasted leaves, the other drinks are made with green leaves, and are very popular in the south of the country and Mato Grosso. Most people colloquially address both the plant and the beverage simply by the word mate.[10]

Both the spellings "mate" and "maté" are used in English, but the latter spelling is never used in either Spanish or Portuguese; in Spanish, maté means "I killed" as opposed to "gourd".[45] There are no variation of spellings in Spanish.[41] The addition of the acute accent over the final "e" was likely added as a hypercorrection, indicating that the word and its pronunciation are distinct from the common English word "mate". According to both Spanish and Portuguese spelling rules, an acute accent in that position shifts the tonic syllable to the last one, whereas in both languages the word is pronounced with the first syllable as the tonic one.[46][47][48][49][50]

Use as a health food[edit]

Mate softdrinks

Mate is consumed as a health food. Packages of yerba mate are available in health food stores and are frequently stocked in the large supermarkets of Europe, Australia and the United States. By 2013, Asian interest in the drink had seen significant growth and led to significant export trade.[51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1998). Ilex paraguariensis. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 9 May 2006.
  2. ^ a b Burtnik, Oscar José, "Yerba Mate Production", 3rd Edition, 2006, retrieved on May 24, 2013
  3. ^ "Nativa Yerba Mate". http://www.nativayerbamate.com/harvest.html. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  4. ^ a b "FAOSTAT". http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx. Retrieved 2011-07-18. 
  5. ^ How to make mate (Spanish)
  6. ^ "Mate: The Bitter Tea South Americans Love to Drink", retrieved on May 30, 2013
  7. ^ Article on yerba mate, with an illustration showing how the gourd is almost filled with yerba (Spanish)
  8. ^ "Flavored Yerba Mate". http://www.ma-tea.com. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  9. ^ "Iced Mate Drinks". guayaki.com. Retrieved 2011-12-21. 
  10. ^ a b "Mate: o chá da hora". Retrieved 2012-09-04. 
  11. ^ "Significado de 'cimarrón'". Retrieved 5 July 2013. 
  12. ^ "Terere". http://www.ma-tea.com. Retrieved 2013-05-30. 
  13. ^ "Flor de agosto". 
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Bibliography[edit]

  • López, Adalberto. The Economics of Yerba Mate in Seventeenth-Century South America in Agricultural History. Agricultural History Society 1974.
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