Overview

Distribution

More info for the term: bog

Bog cranberry is distributed throughout Alaska and across Canada to
Labrador, Greenland, and Newfoundland. It also occurs south through New
England, the northern portions of the Great Lakes States, and western
Washington and Oregon. Bog cranberry is also found in Europe and Asia
[11,20,44,50].
  • 11. Fernald, Merritt Lyndon. 1950. Gray's manual of botany. [Corrections supplied by R. C. Rollins]
  • 20. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 597 p. [1166]
  • 44. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 50. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884]

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Regional Distribution in the Western United States

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This species can be found in the following regions of the western United States (according to the Bureau of Land Management classification of Physiographic Regions of the western United States):

1 Northern Pacific Border
2 Cascade Mountains

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Occurrence in North America

AK CT ID IL IN ME MD MA MI MN
NH NJ NY NC OH OR PA RI VT VA
WA WV WI AB BC LB MB NB NF NT
NS ON PE PQ SK YT

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Vaccinium oxycoccos var. ovalifolium Michx.:
United States (North America)
Canada (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Vaccinium palustre Salisb.:
China (Asia)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Vaccinium oxycoccos L.:
Greenland (North America)
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)
Russian Federation (Asia)
Japan (Asia)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Oxycoccus palustris Pers.:
Greenland (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Heilongjiang, S Jilin (Changbai Shan) [Japan, SE Russia; Europe, North America].
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Global Range: Widespread in boreal North America.

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

More info for the terms: bog, peat, shrub

Bog cranberry is a very small, prostrate, evergreen shrub. The slender
stems are vinelike, and root at the nodes. The lance-shaped leaves are
leathery and have revolute margins. Pink to red flowers are borne
singly or in clusters at the ends of stems. The fruit is a red, juicy
berry [1,21,50]. Underground perennating structures are generally well
below the soil surface [12]. Mycorrhizal associations exist on
unsuberized portions of the roots and allow for improved plant nutrient
levels and growth rates in the acid or peat soil in which bog cranberry
is found [49].
  • 1. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928]
  • 12. Flinn, Marguerite A.; Wein, Ross W. 1977. Depth of underground plant organs and theoretical survival during fire. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55: 2550-2554. [6362]
  • 21. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 49. Vander Kloet, S. P. 1988. The genus Vaccinium in North America. Publication 1828. Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. 201 p. [11436]
  • 50. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884]

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Description

Shrubs evergreen, 10–15 cm tall, sparsely branched, ± procumbent; rhizomes to 80 cm. Twigs terete, slender, puberulous, glabrescent; bud scales inconspicuous. Leaves quite dense; petiole ca. 1 mm; leaf blade dark green adaxially, oblong or ovate, 5–11 × 2–5 mm, leathery, glabrous, abaxially glaucous, secondary veins inconspicuous on both surfaces, base rounded, margin strongly revolute, entire, without basal glands, apex acute to apiculate. Inflorescences terminal umbellate racemes, axis to 7 mm, flowers sometimes axillary at base of innovation, (1- or)2–4-flowered; bracts persistent, ovate, ca. 2 mm, glabrous. Pedicel recurved at apex, filiform, 1–2(–3) cm, pubescent; bracteoles at middle. Flowers 4-merous. Hypanthium glabrous; calyx lobes suborbicular, ca. 0.5 mm. Corolla pinkish, glabrous, lobed nearly to base; lobes reflexed, oblong, 4–6 mm. Filaments ca. 1.5 mm, ciliolate; anthers ca. 3 mm, thecae without spurs; tubules shorter than thecae. Berry 4-loculed, red, ca. 1 cm in diam. Fl. Jun–Jul, fr. Jul–Aug. 2n = 48, (46, 52, 68, 70), 72.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat characteristics

More info for the terms: bog, fen, lichens, peat, tree

Bog cranberry is found in ombrotrophic sphagnum bogs and minerotrophic
fens in moist coastal and boreal forests [4,17,18,50]. Bog cranberry
grows on peat in these poorly drained, subhygric to hygric sites that
have a very high water table [7,27,32,38]. The ground may be saturated
for most or part of the year. The bog sites derive water from
precipitation only and are generally nutrient-poor and low in
productivity. The soil is very acidic and pH ranges from about 2.9 to
4.7 [7,17,32]. Since fen water is derived from ground water as well as
precipitation, the fen sites are more ion-rich, and therefore, more
alkaline. The soil pH ranges from about 6.0 to 7.5 [4,17,43]. These
sites are generally not as nutrient-poor since the environment is more
favorable for decomposer species [4]. Bogs are generally level but are
often patterned by scattered mounds of sphagnum moss. Bog cranberry
often grows on these hummocks. Bog cranberry is found in cool-temperate
to cool-mesothermal climates [25].

Associated tree species include: eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis),
western hemlock (T. heterophylla), northern white cedar (Thuja
occidentalis), western redcedar (T. plicata), Alaska cedar
(Chamaecyparis nootkatensis), Altantic white cedar (C. thyoides),
quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides), balsam poplar (P. balsamifera),
swamp birch (Betula pumila), bog birch (B. glandulosa), paper birch (B.
papyrifera), yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis), and black ash (Fraxinus
nigra).

Associated understory species include: leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne
calyculata), bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla), bog laurel (Kalmia
polifolia), pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), Labrador tea (Ledum
groenlandicum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), rhodora (Rhododendron
canadense), glossy buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula), sundew (Drosera spp.),
cottonsedge (Eriophorum virginatum and E. angustifolium), and various
sedges (Carex spp.), lichens (Cladina and Cladonia spp.), and sphagnum
mosses.
  • 25. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
  • 17. Glaser, Paul H.; Janssens, Jan A.; Siegel, Donald I. 1990. The response of vegetation to chemical and hydrological gradients in the Lost River peatland, northern Minnesota. Journal of Ecology. 78: 1021-1048. [14341]
  • 7. Corns, I. G. W.; Annas, R. M. 1986. Field guide to forest ecosystems of west-central Alberta. Edmonton, AB: Canadian Forestry Service, Northern Forestry Centre. 251 p. [8998]
  • 4. Boelter, Don H.; Verry, Elon S. 1977. Peatland and water in the northern Lake States. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-31. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agrciculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. 22 p. [8168]
  • 18. Heinselman, M. L. 1970. Landscape evolution, peatland types and the environment in the Lake Agassiz Peatlands Natural Area, Minnesota. Ecological Monographs. 40(2): 235-261. [8378]
  • 27. Laderman, Aimlee D.; Golet, Francis C.; Sorrie, Bruce A.; Woolsey, Henry L. 1987. Atlantic white cedar in the glaciated Northeast. In: Laderman, Aimlee D., ed. Atlantic white cedar wetlands. [Place of publication unknown]
  • 32. Pojar, J.; Trowbridge, R.; Coates, D. 1984. Ecosystem classification and interpretation of the sub-boreal spruce zone, Prince Rupert Forest Region, British Columbia. Land Management Report No. 17. Victoria, BC: Province of British Columbia, Ministry of Forests. 319 p. [6929]
  • 38. Santelmann, Mary V. 1991. Influences on the distribution of Carex exilis: an experimental approach. Ecology. 72(6): 2025-2037. [17244]
  • 43. Slack, N. G.; Vitt, D. H.; Horton, D. G. 1980. Vegetation gradients of minerotrophically rich fens in western Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany. 58: 330-350. [7419]
  • 50. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884]

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Key Plant Community Associations

More info for the terms: bog, codominant

Bog cranberry is classified as an indicator of moist to very wet,
nitrogen-poor soils and high surface groundwater [25]. It is also an
indicator of coniferous swamps [37]. Bog cranberry is not listed as a
dominant or codominant understory species in published classification
schemes.
  • 25. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
  • 37. Rudolf, Paul O. 1950. Forest plantations in the Lake States. Tech. Bull. 1010. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 171 p. [13463]

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Habitat: Plant Associations

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This species is known to occur in association with the following plant community types (as classified by Küchler 1964):

More info for the term: bog

K004 Fir - hemlock forest
K093 Great Lakes spruce - fir forest
K094 Conifer bog
K095 Great Lakes pine forest
K096 Northeastern spruce - fir forest

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Habitat: Ecosystem

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This species is known to occur in the following ecosystem types (as named by the U.S. Forest Service in their Forest and Range Ecosystem [FRES] Type classification):

FRES10 White - red - jack pine
FRES11 Spruce - fir
FRES23 Fir - spruce

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Habitat: Cover Types

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This species is known to occur in association with the following cover types (as classified by the Society of American Foresters):

1 Jack pine
5 Balsam fir
12 Black spruce
13 Black spruce - tamarack
38 Tamarack
107 White spruce
201 White spruce
204 Black spruce
253 Black spruce - white spruce

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Moors, marshy places; 500–900 m.
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Comments: Bogs.

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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Small Cranberry in Illinois

Vaccinium oxycoccos (Small Cranberry)
(bees suck nectar or collect pollen, flies suck nectar or feed on pollen; observations are from Reader)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Bombini): Bombus spp. fq, Psithyrus sp. sn

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Lasioglossum sp. cp; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena spp. sn fq

Flies
Syrphidae: Eristalis sp.; Anthomyiidae: Unidentified sp.; Tachinidae: Unidentified sp.

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In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / gall
fruitbody of Exobasidium oxycocci causes gall of dark red, deformed shoot of Vaccinium oxycoccos

Foodplant / spot causer
fruitbody of Exobasidium rostrupii causes spots on leaf of Vaccinium oxycoccos
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / pathogen
Monilia dematiaceous anamorph of Monilinia oxycocci infects and damages brown rotted fruit of Vaccinium oxycoccos

Foodplant / parasite
telium of Naohidemyces vacciniorum parasitises leaf of Vaccinium oxycoccos
Other: unusual host/prey

Foodplant / feeds on
scattered, erumpent pycnidium of Topospora coelomycetous anamorph of Topospora obturata feeds on leaf of Vaccinium oxycoccos

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General Ecology

Fire Management Considerations

More info for the terms: bog, cover, shrub, shrubs

Prescribed burning is the recommended management tool for the sites that
bog cranberry inhabits [22]. Fire reduces tall shrub cover, which
allows low shrub species to persist in bogs [46]. Burning produces a
retrogression from a bog forest dominated by trees to an open sphagnum
bog dominated by sedges and shrubs such as bog cranberry [52]. Without
fire, bog cranberry eventually is shaded out by taller shrub and tree
species.

Commercial cranberry growers often use fire to maintain bogs and
increase fruiting of bog cranberry [52].
  • 22. Jacobson, George L., Jr.; Almquist-Jacobson, Heather; Winne, J. Chris. 1991. Conservation of rare plant habitat: insights from the recent history of vegetation and fire at Crystal Fen, northern Maine, USA. Biological Conservation. 57(3): 287-314. [16533]
  • 46. Taft, John B.; Solecki, Mary Kay. 1990. Vascular flora of the wetland and prairie communities of Gavin Bog and Prairie Nature Preserve, Lake County, Illinois. Rhodora. 92(871): 142-165. [14522]
  • 52. Vogl, Richard J. 1964. The effects of fire on a muskeg in northern Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Management. 28(2): 317-329. [12170]

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Plant Response to Fire

More info for the terms: bog, prescribed fire, rhizome

Bog cranberry sprouts from rhizomes following fire [13]. It generally
becomes more abundant with repeated fires [12]. In the Acadian Forest
Region of Maine, bog cranberry in tamarack (Larix laricina) bogs
increased after a prescribed fire. Prior to burning, bog cranberry
stems were present at less than .09 per square foot (1/sq m). Within 5
months following the fire, the number of bog cranberry stems had
increased via rhizome sprouting to 2.7 per square foot (29/sq m) [13].

After a prescribed fire in northern Wisconsin, increased fruit and seed
production and active succulent green growth was observed in bog
cranberry. The plant flowered and fruited profusely within 1 to 3 years
following the fire [52].
  • 12. Flinn, Marguerite A.; Wein, Ross W. 1977. Depth of underground plant organs and theoretical survival during fire. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55: 2550-2554. [6362]
  • 13. Flinn, Marguerite A.; Wein, Ross W. 1988. Regrowth of forest understory species following seasonal burning. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 150-155. [3014]
  • 52. Vogl, Richard J. 1964. The effects of fire on a muskeg in northern Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Management. 28(2): 317-329. [12170]

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Immediate Effect of Fire

More info for the term: bog

Fire usually top-kills bog cranberry. Severe fires that remove the
underlying sphagnum layer generally kill underground reproductive
organs [52].
  • 52. Vogl, Richard J. 1964. The effects of fire on a muskeg in northern Wisconsin. Journal of Wildlife Management. 28(2): 317-329. [12170]

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Post-fire Regeneration

survivor species; on-site surviving rhizomes
off-site colonizer; seed carried by animals or water; postfire yr 1&2

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Fire Ecology

More info for the term: bog

Members of the family Ericaceae easily regenerate from rhizomes
following fire [8]. Bog cranberry is able to survive low- to
moderate-severity fires because rhizomes are found well below the
surface of the bog [12]. Bog cranberry can utilize ash nutrients for
rapid growth, preventing additional nutrient loss from the burn site
[14]. Wildfires are infrequent in the wet or saturated habitats that
bog cranberry generally occupies [51].
  • 14. Flinn, Marguerite Adele. 1980. Heat penetration and early postfire regeneration of some understory species in the Acadian forest. Halifax, NB: University of New Brunswick. 87 p. Thesis. [9876]
  • 8. Damman, A. W. H. 1977. Geographical changes in the vegetation pattern of raised bogs in the Bay of Fundy region of Maine and New Brunswick. Vegetatio. 35(3): 137-151. [10158]
  • 12. Flinn, Marguerite A.; Wein, Ross W. 1977. Depth of underground plant organs and theoretical survival during fire. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55: 2550-2554. [6362]
  • 51. Vitt, Dale H.; Horton, Diana G.; Slack, Nancy G.; Malmer, Nils. 1990. Sphagnum-dominated peatlands of the hyperoceanic British Columbia coast: patterns in surface water chemistry and vegetation. Canadian Journal of Forestry Research. 20: 696-711. [11739]

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Successional Status

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: bog, climax, shrubs, succession

Bog cranberry can be an early colonizer in secondary succession but is
generally associated with mid-seral stages of primary succession. It is
one of the first colonizers of burned bogs and increases in abundance
with repeated fires [12]. In bog development however, bog cranberry
becomes more abundant after an initial sedge mat has formed. It is most
important in the sphagnum community stage, which consists mainly of
sphagnum mosses and ericaceous shrubs [6,16,45]. Bog cranberry is shade
intolerant [25], and is generally only present as a relic in climax bogs
that have developed a conifer overstory [16].
  • 25. Klinka, K.; Krajina, V. J.; Ceska, A.; Scagel, A. M. 1989. Indicator plants of coastal British Columbia. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press. 288 p. [10703]
  • 6. Conway, Verona M. 1949. The bogs of central Minnesota. Ecological Monographs. 19(2): 173-206. [16686]
  • 12. Flinn, Marguerite A.; Wein, Ross W. 1977. Depth of underground plant organs and theoretical survival during fire. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55: 2550-2554. [6362]
  • 16. Gates, Frank C. 1942. The bogs of northern lower Michigan. Ecological Monographs. 12(3): 213-254. [10728]
  • 45. Stallard, Harvey. 1929. Secondary succession in the climax forest formations of northern Minnesota. Ecology. 10(4): 476-547. [3808]

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Regeneration Processes

More info for the term: bog

Vegetative regeneration is the most important mode of reproduction of
bog cranberry. It can also establish by seed; seedlings, however, are
rare [6].

Bog cranberry is self-pollinating, but pollination by insects
(especially bees) increases seed production [34]. Cranberry (Vaccinium
spp. sec. Oxycoccos) seeds do not germinate immediately after berries
become ripe, but dormancy can be overcome by afterripening. Storage of
seeds at 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 deg C) for 6 to 7 months allows for
germination of seeds at 77 degrees Fahrenheit (25 deg C) [40].

Seeds are dispersed by birds and animals that eat bog cranberry fruits
[49].

Bog cranberry regenerates vegetatively by sprouting from rhizomes and by
layering [1,2,13,50].
  • 2. Beasleigh, W. J.; Yarranton, G. A. 1974. Ecological strategy and tactics of Equisetum sylvaticum during a postfire succession. Canadian Journal of Botany. 52: 2299-2318. [9965]
  • 1. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928]
  • 6. Conway, Verona M. 1949. The bogs of central Minnesota. Ecological Monographs. 19(2): 173-206. [16686]
  • 13. Flinn, Marguerite A.; Wein, Ross W. 1988. Regrowth of forest understory species following seasonal burning. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 150-155. [3014]
  • 34. Reader, R. J. 1977. Bog ericad flowers: self-compatibility and relative attractiveness to bees. Canadian Journal of Botany. 55(17): 2279-2287. [10089]
  • 40. Schultz, Joseph Herbert. 1944. Some cytotaxonomic and germination studies in the genus Vaccinium. Pullman, WA: Washington State University. 115 p. Thesis. [10285]
  • 49. Vander Kloet, S. P. 1988. The genus Vaccinium in North America. Publication 1828. Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada. 201 p. [11436]
  • 50. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884]

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Growth Form (according to Raunkiær Life-form classification)

More info on this topic.

More info for the terms: chamaephyte, geophyte

Chamaephyte
Cryptophyte (geophyte)

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Life Form

More info for the term: shrub

Shrub

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Phenology

More info on this topic.

Bog cranberry flowers emerge from June to July. Fruits ripen from
August to October [44,50]. The berries often persist through the winter
[48].
  • 44. Soper, James H.; Heimburger, Margaret L. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Life Sciences Misc. Publ. Toronto, ON: Royal Ontario Museum. 495 p. [12907]
  • 48. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]
  • 50. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884]

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vaccinium oxycoccos

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vaccinium oxycoccos

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 6
Specimens with Barcodes: 8
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Vaccinium oxycoccus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vaccinium oxycoccus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Barcode data: Oxycoccus palustris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Oxycoccus palustris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 17
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

More info for the term: natural

Bog cranberry is listed as endangered in Ohio by the Natural Heritage
Program [54]. It is considered threatened in Illinois [46]. The
variety ovalifolium is classified as rare in Nova Scotia and New England
[36,41].
  • 41. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 36. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 46. Taft, John B.; Solecki, Mary Kay. 1990. Vascular flora of the wetland and prairie communities of Gavin Bog and Prairie Nature Preserve, Lake County, Illinois. Rhodora. 92(871): 142-165. [14522]
  • 54. McCance, R. M., Jr.; Burns, J. F., eds. 1984. Ohio endangered and threatened vascular plants: Abstracts of state-listed taxa. Columbus, OH: Department of Natural Resources, Division of Natural Areas and Preserves. 635 p. [22520]

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Widespread and common through boreal Northern Hemisphere, with thousands of occurrences.

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Management

Management considerations

More info for the terms: bog, fen, formation, peat

Commercial cultivation of bog cranberry is not widespread in the United
States but is important in Russia. Cultivation experiments have shown
that bog cranberry grows well in acid peat substrates [19]. It does not
respond well to transplanting [13].

Bog cranberries are of local commercial importance [5], and berry
picking provides recreation for many people. However, decreased fruit
production has resulted from the draining of bogs for agricultural
purposes or to access timber [23]. As bog or fen areas are drained
and cleared, wetland species such as sphagnum mosses and bog cranberry
are replaced by vegetation that indicates drier conditions and the
cessation of peat formation [28].

Bog cranberry is susceptible to many different fungal diseases [42].
  • 5. Chandler, F. B.; Hyland, Fay. 1941. Botanical and economic distribution of Vaccinium L. in Maine. Proceedings of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 38: 430-433. [9665]
  • 13. Flinn, Marguerite A.; Wein, Ross W. 1988. Regrowth of forest understory species following seasonal burning. Canadian Journal of Botany. 66: 150-155. [3014]
  • 19. Hiirsalmi, H. M. 1989. Research into Vaccinium cultivation in Finland. Acta Horticulturae. 241: 175-184. [12159]
  • 23. Kardell, Lars. 1986. Occurrence and berry production of Rubus chamaemorus L., Vaccinium oxycoccus L., V. microcarpum Turcz. & V. vitis-idaea on Swedish peatlds. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research. 1(1): 125-140. [3711]
  • 28. Lewis, Francis J.; Dowding, E. S. 1926. The vegetation and retrogressive changes of peat areas ("muskegs") in central Alberta. Journal of Ecology. 14: 317-341. [12740]
  • 42. Shear, C. L.; Stevens, Neil E.; Bain, Henry F. 1931. Fungous diseases of the cultivated cranberry. Tech. Bull. No. 258. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 57 p. [16406]

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

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Value for rehabilitation of disturbed sites

More info for the term: bog

The value of bog cranberry for rehabilitation of disturbed sites is not
well documented. It has, however, been successfully transplanted to a
saline-impacted bog in Indiana [53].
  • 53. Wilcox, Douglas A.; Ray, Gary. 1989. Using "living mat" transplants to restore a salt-impacted bog (Indiana). Restoration and Management Notes. 7(1): 39. [8063]

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Importance to Livestock and Wildlife

Bog cranberry is of limited use to wildlife. It is not utilized as
browse by big game animals [9]. A few bird species including Hudsonian
godwits, sharp-tailed grouse, and ring-necked pheasants eat bog
cranberry fruits [30,39,48]. Small mammals such as chipmunks,
squirrels, rabbits, and hares may occasionally utilize the berries.
  • 9. Dayton, William A. 1931. Important western browse plants. Misc. Publ. 101. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 214 p. [768]
  • 30. Martin, Alexander C.; Zim, Herbert S.; Nelson, Arnold L. 1951. American wildlife and plants. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 500 p. [4021]
  • 39. Schmidt, F. J. W. 1936. Winter food of the sharp-tailed grouse and pinnated grouse in Wisconsin. Wilson Bulletin. September: 186-203. [16729]
  • 48. Van Dersal, William R. 1938. Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture. 362 p. [4240]

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Other uses and values

Bog cranberry fruits have good flavor and are often used to make jams
and jellies. However, they are seldom abundant enough to be gathered in
large quantities [21,50]. Native Americans used the berries, twigs, and
bark for medicinal purposes [35].
  • 21. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 35. Robuck, O. Wayne. 1985. The common plants of the muskegs of southeast Alaska. Miscellaneous Publication/July 1985. Portland, OR: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. 131 p. [11556]
  • 50. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884]

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Palatability

Bog cranberry fruits are presumably moderately palatable [21,50].
  • 21. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 50. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884]

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Wikipedia

Vaccinium oxycoccos

Vaccinium oxycoccos is a species of flowering plant in the heath family. It is known by the common names small cranberry, bog cranberry, and swamp cranberry. It is native to northern North America.[1]

This cranberry is a small, prostrate shrub with vine-like stems that root at the nodes. The leaves are leathery and lance-shaped, up to 1 cm long.[1] Flowers arise on nodding stalks a few centimeters tall. The corolla is white or pink and flexed backward away from the center of the flower. The fruit is a red berry which has spots when young. It measures up to 1.2 cm wide.[2] The plant forms associations with mycorrhizae. It mainly reproduces vegetatively.[1]

This is a widespread and common species.[3] It is an indicator of moist to wet soils which are low in nitrogen and have a high water table. It is an indicator of coniferous swamps. It grows in bogs and fens in moist forest habitat. It grows on peat which may be saturated most of the time. The soil in bogs is acidic and low in nutrients. The plant's mycorrhizae help it obtain nutrients in this situation. Fens have somewhat less acidic soil, which is also higher in nutrients. The plant can often be found growing on hummocks of Sphagnum mosses. Other species found in this forest understory habitat include leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata), bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla), bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), pitcher plant (Sarracenia purpurea), Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), cloudberry (Rubus chamaemorus), rhodora (Rhododendron canadense), glossy buckthorn (Rhamnus frangula), sundew (Drosera spp.), cottonsedge (Eriophorum virginatum and E. angustifolium), and species of sedge and lichen. The plant easily colonizes bog habitat that has recently burned. It survives fire with its underground rhizomes.[1]

This plant has been used as a medicine and as a food by various Native American communities. Some Iñupiat cook the cranberry with fish eggs and blubber.[4][5]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Matthews, Robin F. 1992. Vaccinium oxycoccos. In: Fire Effects Information System, [Online]. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fire Sciences Laboratory.
  2. ^ Vaccinium oxycoccos. Flora of North America.
  3. ^ Vaccinium oxycoccos. NatureServe.
  4. ^ Jones, Anore (1983). "Nauriat niginaqtuat (Plants that we eat)". Maniilaq Association Traditional Nutrition Program (Kotzebue, Alaska): 104. According to the brief annotation in Anonymous (2003, unpaginated webpage). 
  5. ^ Anonymous (2003). "Search results for Vaccinium oxycoccos". Native American Ethnobotany. Dearborn, MI: University of Michigan-Dearborn. Retrieved 15 June 2012. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Common Names

More info for the term: swamp

bog cranberry
small cranberry
wild cranberry
swamp cranberry

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More info for the term: bog

The currently accepted scientific name of bog cranberry is Vaccinium
oxycoccos Linnaeus [20,24,31,50], in the family Ericaceae. The
taxonomically complex genus Vaccinium has been divided into a number of
subgenera or sections. The cranberry genera is often segregated as the
subgenus or genus Oxycoccos [1,21,36,41]. Several authorities recognize
the following varieties [20,24,36,50]:

Vaccinium oxycoccos var. microcarpus (Turcz.) Fedtsh. & Flerov.
Vaccinium oxycoccos var. ovalifolium Michx.
Vaccinium oxycoccos var. intermedium Gray
  • 1. Anderson, J. P. 1959. Flora of Alaska and adjacent parts of Canada. Ames, IA: Iowa State University Press. 543 p. [9928]
  • 20. Hitchcock, C. Leo; Cronquist, Arthur. 1964. Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. Part 2: Salicaceae to Saxifragaceae. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. 597 p. [1166]
  • 41. Seymour, Frank Conkling. 1982. The flora of New England. 2d ed. Phytologia Memoirs 5. Plainfield, NJ: Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke. 611 p. [7604]
  • 21. Hulten, Eric. 1968. Flora of Alaska and neighboring territories. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. 1008 p. [13403]
  • 36. Roland, A. E.; Smith, E. C. 1969. The flora of Nova Scotia. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia Museum. 746 p. [13158]
  • 50. Viereck, Leslie A.; Little, Elbert L., Jr. 1972. Alaska trees and shrubs. Agric. Handb. 410. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 265 p. [6884]
  • 24. Kartesz, John T.; Kartesz, Rosemarie. 1980. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. Volume II: The biota of North America. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press; in confederation with Anne H. Lindsey and C. Richie Bell, North Carolina Botanical Garden. 500 p. [6954]
  • 31. Palser, Barbara F. 1961. Studies of floral morphology in the Ericales. V. Organography and vascular anatomy in several United States species of the Vacciniaceae. Botanical Gazette. 123(2): 79-111. [9032]

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Synonyms

Oxycoccos microcarpus Turcz.
Oxycoccos palustris Persh
Oxycoccos oxycoccos MacM.
Oxycoccos quadripetalus Gilib.
Oxycoccos intermedius Rydb.

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Comments: If placed in the segregate genus Oxycoccos, these plants are called Oxycoccus oxycoccos, a permissible near-tautonym (see Voss, Michigan Flora, vol. 3). Also known as Oxycoccus microcarpus, O. palustris, and (incorrectly) O. quadripetalus. Kartesz (1994 checklist) spells one of the synonymous names O. microcarpos, while Voss (Michigan Flora vol. 3, 1996) and Love (Flora of Iceland, 1983) spell it 'microcarpus'.

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