Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

Prickly Ash is a distant relative of the Orange and other citrus fruits. In spite of its common name, it is not closely related to Ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) of the Olive family, although their pinnate leaves are superficially similar to each other. A more southern species, Zanthoxylum clava-herculis (Hercule's Club), differs from Prickly Ash by having its trunk densely covered with stout warty prickles. Hercule's Club also has more leaflets (11-19) per compound leaf and it produces large terminal panicles of flowers and fruit, rather than small axillary cymes of flowers and fruit. It is also possible to confuse Prickly Ash with a sapling of Robinia pseudoacacia (Black Locust) because they both have scattered large prickles along their twigs and smaller branches, and they both have pinnate leaves. However, Black Locust becomes much larger in size than Prickly Ash, it has more leaflets per compound leaf, its leaflets have more rounded tips, and its flowers and fruits are completely different in appearance. A scientific synonym of Prickly Ash, Xanthoxylum americanum, is occasionally encountered in some reference materials.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

This shrub is 4-25' tall, branching abundantly. The bark of trunk and larger branches is gray to brown and fairly smooth, although on old large shrubs it can become shallowly furrowed with a wrinkled appearance. Twigs are brown and glabrous, while young shoots are light green and nearly glabrous to pubescent. Pairs of stout prickles up to 1/3" long are scattered along the branches, twigs and shoots; these spines are somewhat flattened and curved. Alternate compound leaves about 6-12" long develop along the twigs and young shoots; they are odd-pinnate with 5-11 leaflets. Individual leaflets are 1½-3¼" long and ½-1½" across; they are lanceolate-oblong to ovate-oblong with margins that are smooth to crenulate (fine rounded teeth). The upper surface of mature leaflets is medium green, minutely glandular, and glabrous, while the lower surface is pale green and short-pubescent to nearly glabrous; in the latter case, fine hairs are restricted to the major veins. Newly emerged leaflets are more hairy than mature leaflets. The lateral leaflets are sessile or nearly so, while the terminal leaflets have slender petiolules (basal stalklets) that are less than ½" long. The light green petioles (basal stalks) and rachises of the compound leaves are hairy while young, but become more glabrous with age; they have scattered small prickles along their undersides. Prickly Ash is almost always dioecious, producing male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers on separate shrubs. These flowers are arranged in small axillary clusters (cymes) along the branches of the preceding year. Individual male flowers are a little less than ¼" across, consisting of 4-5 erect petals and 4-5 stamens; there is no calyx. The petals of male flowers are yellowish green to orange and oblong in shape. Individual female flowers are about ¼" across, consisting of 4-5 erect petals and 2-5 separate pistils; there is no calyx. The petals of female flowers are also yellowish green to orange and oblong in shape. The ovaries of the pistils are glossy green and ovoid in shape; their elongated styles tend to converge at their tips. The blooming period occurs during mid- to late spring before the leaves develop. Afterwards, the female flowers are replaced by berry-like follicles (fruits that open along one-side) about 1/3" long that are ovoid-globoid in shape with a pitted surface. As the follicles mature, they change from green to red to brown, eventually splitting open to expose shiny black seeds with oily surfaces. Each follicle contains 1-2 seeds. Both the crushed foliage and fruits are highly aromatic, somewhat resembling the fragrance of lemon peels. The root system produces underground runners, from which clonal offsets are produced. This shrub often forms clonal colonies of varying size.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Description

General: Rue Family (Rutaceae). It is an aromatic, native, perennial tree or shrub that can grow from 1 to 8 meters tall. The branches are dark brown and armed with 8 to 13 mm-long prickles. When broken, the twigs have a strong odor reminiscent of crushed lemon peel. The leaf buds (1mm long) are red and woolly. The leaves (1 to 30 cm long) are composed of 5 to 11 ovate, pinnately arranged leaflets (4 to 8 cm long). The dark green and lustrous leaves are dotted with translucent glands. The lower portion of the leaf is a lighter pubescent green beneath. The greenish-yellow flowers (3 to 3.5 mm wide) appear in the spring before the leaves. The small fruits are capsules (0.5 to 0.6 cm). Each fruit contains one seed. The fruit ripens in late summer, turning from green to reddish brown. When the seeds mature, they hang exposed from the split capsules.

Distribution: For current distribution, please consult the Plant Profile page for this species on the PLANTS Web site.

Habitat: This plant occurs along riverbanks and in moist ravines, thickets, and woods. It is also found in somewhat drier areas such as upland rocky hillsides, bluffs, and open woods.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Alternative names

Northern prickly ash, toothache tree; this genus is incorrectly spelled Xanthoxylum in much of the literature.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Prickly Ash is occasional in northern and central Illinois, while in the southern section of the state it is rare or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include upland woodlands, bottomland woodlands, savannas, wooded ravines, thinly wooded bluffs, edges of shady seeps, stream banks in wooded areas, thickets, pastures, and fence rows. Prickly Ash is found in both disturbed and higher quality natural areas. It probably benefits from occasional wildfires.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: Zanthoxylum americanum grows from Oklahoma north to North Dakota, east to Southern Canada and New England and south to Florida.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Zanthoxylum americanum is distinguishable from Z. clava-herculis by the latter having bark with triangular, corky knobs. Z. clava-herculis is also a larger shrub, reaching 30 m tall (Foster and Duke 1990).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The native Prickly Ash is occasional in northern and central Illinois, while in the southern section of the state it is rare or absent (see Distribution Map). Habitats include upland woodlands, bottomland woodlands, savannas, wooded ravines, thinly wooded bluffs, edges of shady seeps, stream banks in wooded areas, thickets, pastures, and fence rows. Prickly Ash is found in both disturbed and higher quality natural areas. It probably benefits from occasional wildfires.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Comments: Zanthoxylum americanum is considered an eastern deciduous forest "endemic" and grows in shaded and partially shaded conditions in medium to low elevations (Porter 1976). It has been recorded on mesic bluffs, deciduous forests, mountains, river banks, stream banks, deciduous thickets and woodlands, moist woods and thickets (Porter 1976, Gleason and Cronquist 1991).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Dispersal

Establishment

Common pricklyash is a very hearty tree or small shrub that does well in poor soils. Although easily grown, the plants are not generally used for landscape purposes as ornamentals. Because of the plants small yet sharp thorns and suckering habit, they can make an efficient barrier planting. The plants do well in partial shade to full sun. Seeds, suckers, and root cuttings may propagate pricklyash. The seeds may be gathered from the plants when the capsules are open. Unopened capsules will open upon drying. The seeds will require scarification to germinate, unless they are sown in the fall immediately after collecting them.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

Faunal Associations

The nectar and pollen of the flowers attract primarily bees and flies (Robertson, 1929). Bee visitors include honeybees, bumblebees, cuckoo bees (Nomada spp.), mason bees (Osmia spp.), Halictid bees (Augochloropsis spp., Lasioglossum spp., etc.), and Andrenid bees (Andrena spp.). Fly visitors consist of Syrphid flies, Tachinid flies, Muscid flies, and others. The caterpillars of the butterfly, Papilio cresphontes (Giant Swallowtail), feed on the foliage of Prickly Ash. This shrub is the preferred host of the leafhopper Empoasca latarca (Dmitriev & Dietrich, 2010). Several polyphagous treehoppers also feed on this shrub
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Flower-Visiting Insects of Prickly Ash in Illinois

Zanthoxylum americanum (Prickly Ash)
(on staminate flowers, bees usually suck and less often collect pollen, while other insects suck nectar; on pistillate flowers, all insects suck nectar; observations are from Robertson)

On staminate flowers:

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp fq; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada cuneatus sn fq, Nomada luteola sn fq; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia pumila sn fq

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella striata sn, Lasioglossum coriaceus sn, Lasioglossum cressonii sn, Lasioglossum imitatus sn cp fq, Lasioglossum versatus sn cp fq; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes inaequalis sn fq icp; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena cressonii sn fq, Andrena forbesii sn fq, Andrena imitatrix imitatrix sn fq, Andrena miserabilis bipunctata sn fq, Andrena sn rugosa fq, Andrena sayi sn fq

Wasps
Pompilidae: Priocnemis cornicus; Chrysididae: Chrysura pacifica

Flies
Syrphidae: Brachypalpus oarus, Toxomerus geminatus fq; Tachinidae: Gonia capitata fq

Beetles
Oedemeridae: Asclera puncticollis

On pistillate flowers:

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera fq; Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina calcarata; Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada cressonii, Nomada cuneatus fq, Nomada denticulata, Nomada illinoiensis fq, Nomada luteola fq, Nomada ovatus fq, Nomada sayi fq, Nomada sulphurata; Megachilidae (Osmiini): Osmia lignaria lignaria fq, Osmia pumila fq

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella striata, Augochloropsis metallica metallica, Augochloropsis sumptuosa fq, Halictus ligatus, Halictus rubicunda, Lasioglossum cinctipes, Lasioglossum foxii fq, Lasioglossum imitatus fq, Lasioglossum versatus fq, Lasioglossum zephyrus fq, Paralictus platyparius; Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes inaequalis fq icp; Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena cressonii fq, Andrena forbesii fq, Andrena hippotes, Andrena imitatrix imitatrix fq, Andrena mandibularis, Andrena miserabilis bipunctata fq, Andrena pruni fq, Andrena rugosa fq, Andrena sayi fq

Flies
Syrphidae: Epistrophe emarginata, Eristalis dimidiatus, Eupeodes americanus, Helophilus fasciatus, Orthonevra nitida, Sphaerophoria contiqua, Toxomerus geminatus fq; Conopidae: Myopa vesiculosa; Tachinidae: Archytas analis, Gonia capitata fq, Periscepsia clesides; Sarcophagidae: Ravinia derelicta; Calliphoridae: Phormia regina; Muscidae: Neomyia cornicina fq; Scathophagidae: Scathophaga furcata

Moths
Noctuidae: Anagrapha falcifera

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Zanthoxylum americanum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Zanthoxylum americanum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Zanthoxylum americanum ranges from Oklahoma to southern Canada, east to New England and south to Florida. This weedy species is relatively common in the western portion of the range, though occasional and rare throughout portions of the eastern range. Z. americanum is currently of limited demand in the commercial trade for medicinal plants, however all material in trade is wild-collected.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Status

Please consult the PLANTS Web site and your State Department of Natural Resources for this plant’s current status (e.g. threatened or endangered species, state noxious status, and wetland indicator values).

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Comments: According to Michael McGuffin, president of the American Herbal Products Association, there is currently "limited demand" for this species, which is considered to be "aggressive" in its growth habits (pers. comm., December 2000). The estimated average annual use in medicinal industry ranges from 2,000-5,000 dry pounds and 100% of that total is collected from wild populations (pers. comm. E. Fletcher, 2000).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Pests and potential problems

Common pricklyash has no serious insect or disease problems.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Cultivars, improved and selected materials (and area of origin)

These plant materials are not readily available from commercial sources. Contact your local Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly Soil Conservation Service) office for more information. Look in the phone book under ”United States Government.” The Natural Resources Conservation Service will be listed under the subheading “Department of Agriculture.”

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun and moist to dry-mesic conditions. Different types of soil are tolerated, including those that contain loam, clay-loam, and rocky material. This shrub can adapt to light shade, but it may fail to produce flowers and fruit. It has relatively few problems with pests and disease organisms.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© John Hilty

Source: Illinois Wildflowers

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Economic Uses

Uses: MEDICINE/DRUG

Production Methods: Wild-harvested

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Uses

Ethnobotanic: The Alabama, Cherokee, Chippewa, Comanche, Creek, Delaware, Iroquois, Oklahoma, Menominee, Meskwaki, Ojibwa, Pawnee, and Potawatomi were among the Native American tribes that used common pricklyash for many, mostly medicinal purposes. An infusion of the bark was used as a wash to treat itching skin and to treat swollen joints. Infusions of the bark were taken internally for back pain, cramps, pulmonary problems, to treat fevers, and as a cold and cough remedy. Infusions, made from the crushed roots, were also used to treat fevers. A poultice made from the inner bark was used to treated rheumatism and sharp pains. Placing the inner bark in the throat treated sore throats. The bark was boiled into a decoction that was taken to induce miscarriages. The plant was used to treat pain after childbirth. Bark infusions were taken to treat worms in adults. The bark of the roots was used to treat colic, rheumatism, and gonorrhea. An ointment, made my mixing the plant with bear grease, was applied to ulcers and sores. Infusions of the berries were used to spray on the chest and throat to treat bronchial diseases, to wash sores, and to flavor medicines. The bark and the berries were used to treat hemorrhages, to make cough syrup, as an expectorant, and to treat tuberculosis. Children who were weak were washed with a decoction of the bark to make their legs and feet strong. The bark was used in different forms to alleviate toothaches. Smoking the bark treated toothache. Bark, either beaten or powdered was packed in and around an aching tooth. Pieces of the bark were chewed to help breakup a tooth that was to be remove. The plant was an ingredient in compounds that were used for kidney trouble, to strengthen convalescing patients, and to induce vomiting. An infusion of the bark was, at least once, placed on a dog’s nose to improve its scenting capabilities during hunting. The fruits were administered as diuretics to horses. Young men of the Omaha tribe used a perfume made from the fruits. The plant is probably still used today for various purposes by various Native American tribes.

Wildlife: The fruits are eaten by a variety of birds and small mammals including bobwhite quails, vireos, pheasants, cottontails, and eastern chipmunks. Bees are attracted to the flowers. Giant swallowtail butterflies lay their eggs on the plants leaves.

Public Domain

USDA NRCS National Plant Data Center

Source: USDA NRCS PLANTS Database

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Zanthoxylum americanum

Zanthoxylum americanum, the Common Prickly-ash, Common Pricklyash, Common Prickly Ash or Northern Prickly-ash (also sometimes called Toothache Tree, Yellow Wood, or Suterberry), is an aromatic shrub or small tree native to central and eastern portions of the United States and Canada. It is the northernmost New World species in the Citrus (Rutaceae) family, and is part of the same genus as sichuan pepper.[1] It can grow to 10 meters (33 ft) tall with a diameter at breast height (DBH) of 15 cm (6 in).[2] It produces membranous leaflets and axillary flower clusters.[2] The wood is not commercially valuable, but oil extracts from the bark have been used in traditional and alternative medicine, and have been studied for antifungal and cytotoxic properties.[2] The genus name is sometimes spelled Xanthoxylum.

Taxonomy[edit]

Originally described by Scottish botanist Philip Miller in 1768,[3] Zanthoxylum americanum is a member of the wide-ranging genus Zanthoxylum in the plant family Rutaceae, which includes many species with aromatic foliage. Miller, who spelled the name Xanthoxylum, described the plant in the eighth edition of his Gardeners Dictionary, as "grow[ing] naturally in Pensylvania [sic] and Maryland".[4]

Description[edit]

The plant has pinnately compound leaves with 5–11 membranous leaflets. It has axillary flower and fruit clusters.[2] The buds are hairy. The dark green leaves are bitter-aromatic, with crenate margins.[5][2] The berries begin red[5] and turn deep blue to black,[6] with stalked fruit pods.[2] Flowers are dioecious, with yellow-green petals.[7]

Distribution and conservation status[edit]

Rare in the South, it is more common in the northern United States.[2] In the United States, it occurs in Alabama, Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, the District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Maine, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont, Wisconsin and West Virginia; the species also occurs in Ontario and Quebec in Canada.[8] The species is listed as Endangered in Florida, Maryland, and New Hampshire; and as Special Concern in Tennessee.[8]

Butterflies that use Zanthoxylum americanum as a larval food source include the Thoas Swallowtail (Papilio thoas), Giant Swallowtail (P. cresphontes), and Spicebush Swallowtail (P. troilus).[5]

This plant was discovered by John Bartram in his travels and plant collecting excursions.[citation needed]

Medicinal use[edit]

Seedling drawing

Traditional[edit]

An oil extracted from the bark and berries of the prickly-ash (both this species and Zanthoxylum clava-herculis) has been used in herbal medicine.[2][6] The extract may act as a stimulant, and historic medicinal use has included use "for chronic rheumatism, typhoid and skin diseases and impurity of the blood..." as well as for digestive ailments.[6] Grieve states, "The berries are considered even more active than the bark, being carminative and antispasmodic, and are used as an aperient and for dyspepsia and indigestion; a fluid extract of the berries being given, in doses of 10 to 30 drops."[6] The bark has been chewed for toothaches, and a tea from the berries has been used for sore throats and as a diuretic.[9] As noted by Michael Dirr, in his Manual of Woody Landscape Plants, "Supposedly the stems and fruits were chewed by the Indians to alleviate toothache for the acrid juice has a numbing effect."[this quote needs a citation]

Modern studies and uses[edit]

There have been some modern studies of the oil's chemical constituents and their antifungal[10] and cytotoxic effects.[11] [12]

In 2012, a Pennsylvania distillery introduced a bitters called Bartram's Bitters that uses prickly ash bark as one of several botanical ingredients. The concoction was based on a recipe for "Bartram's Homestead Bitters" that was found in a book that belonged to the family of botanist John Bartram.[13]

Images[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Zanthoxylum americanum" (range map). U.S. Geological Survey. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Duncan, Wilbur H.; Duncan, Marion B. (1988). Trees of the Southeastern United States. Athens, Georgia: The University of Georgia Press. pp. 76–77. ISBN 0-8203-1469-2. 
  3. ^ International Organization for Plant Information (IOPI). "Plant Name Search Results" (HTML). International Plant Names Index. Retrieved July 5, 2009. 
  4. ^ Miller, Philip (1768). The Gardeners Dictionary: Containing the Best and Newest Methods of Cultivating and Improving The Kitchen, Fruit, Flower Garden, and Nursery; As also for Performing The Practical Parts of Agriculture: Including the Management of Vineyards, With The Methods of Making and Preserving Wine, According to the present Practice of The most skilful Vignerons in the several Wine Countries in Europe. Together With Directions for Propagating and Improving, From Real Practice and Experience, All Sorts of Timber Trees (Eighth ed.). London: Printed for the Author. 
  5. ^ a b c "NPIN: Zanthoxylum americanum (Common pricklyash)". Retrieved July 3, 2009. 
  6. ^ a b c d Grieve, Mrs. M. (1996) [1973]. Leyel, Mrs. C. F., ed. A Modern Herbal. New York: Barnes & Noble Books. pp. 70–71. ISBN 0-88029-921-5. 
  7. ^ Brown, Claud L.; Kirkman, L. Katherine (1990). Trees of Georgia and Adjacent States. Portland, Oregon: Timber Press. pp. 163–164. ISBN 0-88192-148-3. 
  8. ^ a b "PLANTS profile for Zanthoxylum americanum Mill. (common pricklyash)". Natural Resources Conservation Service. United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved July 3, 2009. 
  9. ^ Foster, Steven; Duke, James A. (1990). A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants: Eastern and Central North America. The Peterson Field Guide Series. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 238. ISBN 0-395-35309-2. 
  10. ^ Bafiyeboa, N. "Antifungal constituents of Northern prickly ash, Mill.". Phytomedicine 12 (5): 370–377. 
  11. ^ Ju, Yong; Still, Cecil C.; Sacalis, John N.; Li, Jiangang; Ho, Chi-Tang (July 30, 2001). "Cytotoxic coumarins and lignans from extracts of the northern prickly ash (Zanthoxylum americanum)". Phytotherapy Research (John Wiley & Sons) 15 (5): 441–443. doi:10.1002/ptr.686. PMID 11507740. Retrieved July 3, 2009. 
  12. ^ Saqib, Q. N.; Hui, Y.-H.; Anderson, J. E.; McLaughlin, J. L. (January 11, 2006). "Bioactive furanocoumarins from the berries of Zanthoxylum americanum". Phytotherapy Research (John Wiley & Sons) 4 (6): 216–219. doi:10.1002/ptr.2650040604. Retrieved July 3, 2009. 
  13. ^ Nichols, Rick (May 25, 2012). "The resurrection of Bartram's Bitters". Philadelphia Inquirer. Retrieved 2013-06-15. 
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!