The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Breglia, S.A., Slamovits, C.H. and Leander, B.S. 2007. Phylogeny of phagotrophic euglenids (Euglenozoa) as inferred from hsp90 gene sequences. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 52:86-94.
  • Gibbs, S.P. 1978. The chloroplasts of Euglena may have evolved from symbiotic green algae. Can. J. Bot. 56:2883-2889.
  • Kent, M.L., Elston, R.A., Neral, T.A. and Sawyer, T.K. 1987. An Isonema-like flagellate (Protozoa, Mastigophora) infection in larval geoduck clams, Panope abrupta. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 50:221-229.
  • Kivic, P.A. and Walne, P.L. 1984. An evaluation of the possible phylogenetic relationship between Euglenophyta and Kinetoplastida. Orig. Life 13:269-288.
  • Leander, B. S., Triemer, R. E. and Farmer, M. A. 2001. Character evolution in heterotrophic euglenids. Eur. J. Protistol. 37:337-356.
  • Leander, B.S. 2004. Did trypanosomatid parasites have photosynthetic ancestors? Trends Microbiol. 2004:12:251-258.
  • Leander, B.S., Esson, H.J. and Breglia, S.A. 2007. Macroevolution of complex cytoskeletal systems in euglenids. Bioessays 29:987-1000.
  • Marande, W., Lukes, J. and Burger, G. 2005. Unique mitochondrial genome structure in diplonemids, the sister group of kinetoplastids. Eukaryot. Cell 4:1137-1146.
  • Maslov, D. A., Yasuhira, S. and Simpson, L. 1999. Phylogenetic affinities of Diplonema within the Euglenozoa as inferred from the SSU rRNA gene and partial COI protein sequences. Protist 150:33-42.
  • Moreira, D., Lopez-Garcia, P. and Vickerman, K. 2004. An updated view of kinetoplastid phylogeny using environmental sequences and a closer outgroup: proposal for a new classification of the class Kinetoplastea. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol., 54:1861-1875.
  • Roy, J., Faktorova, D., Benada, O., Lukes, J. and Burger, G. 2007. Description of Rhynchopus euleeides n. sp. (Diplonemea), a free-living marine euglenozoan. J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 54:137-145.
  • Simpson, A. G. B., Inagaki, Y. and Roger, A. J. 2006. Comprehensive multigene phylogenies of excavate protists reveal the evolutionary positions of "primitive" eukaryotes. Mol. Biol. Evol., 23:615-625.
  • Simpson, A.G.B. and Roger, A.J. 2004. Protein phylogenies robustly resolve the deep-level relationships within Euglenozoa. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 30:201-212.
  • Simpson, A.G.B. et al. 2002. The evolutionary history of kinetoplastids and their kinetoplasts. Mol. Biol. Evol. 19:2071-2083.
  • Simpson, A.G.B., van den Hoff, J., Bernard, C., Burton, H.R. and Patterson, D.J. 1996/97. The ultrastructure and systematic position of the Euglenozoon Postgaardi mariagerensis, Fehchel et al. Arch Protistenkd, 147:213-225.
  • WoRMS (2011). Euglenozoa. In: Guiry, M.D. & Guiry, G.M. (2016). AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway (taxonomic information republished from AlgaeBase with permission of M.D. Guiry). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at
  • Yubuki, N., Edgcomb, V.P., Bernhard, J.M. and Leander, B.S. In review. Cellular identity of a diverse group of deep sea, anoxic euglenozoans with epibiotic bacteria: Ultrastructure and molecular phylogeny of Calkinsia aureus from the Santa Barbara Basin (California, USA). BMC Microbiology.


EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!