Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Plains to Mid Altitude, Dry Deciduous to Moist Deciduous Forests"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Miscellaneous Details

"Notes: Western Ghats, Evergreen Forests. Endemic to Western Ghats"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Summary

"Canopy trees in dry evergreen forests, up to 800 m."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Summary

Canopy trees in low elevation wet evergreen forest up to 900 m.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

"
Global Distribution

Peninsular India and Sri Lanka

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Kollam, Idukki

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"Maharashtra: Pune, Satara Karnataka: N. Kanara, Shimoga, S. Kanara Kerala: Idukki, Kollam Tamil Nadu: All districts"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"Kerala: Idukki, Kollam, Palakkad, Thrissur Tamil Nadu: Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Tirunelveli"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

"
Global Distribution

Western Ghats

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Palakkad, Thrissur, Idukki, Kannur, Kasaragode

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Peninsular India and Sri Lanka; in the Western Ghats- leeward side of the South Sahyadri and Nilgiris.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Endemic Distribution

Western Ghats
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Endemic to the Western Ghats- South and Central Sahyadris.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diospyros ebenaster Retz.:
El Salvador (Mesoamerica)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)
Mexico (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Diospyros ebenum J. König:
Gabon (Africa & Madagascar)
Honduras (Mesoamerica)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Evergreen dioecious trees, to 15 m high, bark black or grey-black, rough, peeling off in small rectangular pieces, fissured, brittle; blaze yellow; branchlets slender, apical part sparsely minutely adpressed pilose or glabrous. Leaves simple, alternate, estipulate; petiole 4-10 mm long, slender, glabrous; lamina 4.5-15 x 4-7 cm, elliptic-oblong, oblong, oblong-lanceolate, obovate or obovate-oblong, base cuneate or acute, apex obtuse, emarginate or subacute, margin entire, glabrous, coriaceous; lateral nerves 5-11 pairs, pinnate, prominent, basal pairs opposite, intercostae reticulate, prominent, pellucid. Flowers unisexual, subsessile, greenish-yellow; male flowers: 3-15 in short, axillary, umbellate clusters; peduncle densely tomentose; pedicel 3 mm; calyx cupular, glabrous; lobes 4, ovate, spreading, margin ciliate; corolla 7 mm long, 1 cm across, tubular to salver-shaped; lobes 4, ovate-oblong, 6 mm long; stamens 6-12, unequal, in uneven groups; filaments 1.5-3.5 mm long; anthers linear, connectives crested, apiculate; pistillode linear to 2 mm; female flowers: solitary, axillary, pedicel to 3 mm; calyx cupular, mouth densely tomentose; lobes 4, ovate, spreading, subacute; corolla 3 mm across, tubular; tube 6 mm; lobes 4, each 6 mm, acute, reflexed; staminodes 8 with double anthers; ovary superior, 4.5 x 4 mm, globose, 8-celled, ovules 1-in each cell; styles 4; stigma capitellate. Fruit a berry, 2 x 1.8 cm, subglobose, with short apical beak; calyx enlarged and forming a shallow wooden cup; reflexed; seeds 3-8, black; endosperm equable."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

"Evergreen dioecious trees, to 20 m high, bark 4-6 mm thick, black, mottled with green and white, cracked; outer bark 1 mm thick, dark black, dead, inner bark 4-5 mm thick, brittle, yellowish-brown; blaze yellow; branchlets thinly tomentose. Leaves simple, alternate, estipulate; petiole 5-10 mm long, slender, glabrous; lamina 7-17.5 x 3.5-6.5 cm, ovate, obovate, oblong, elliptic-oblong or elliptic-obovate, base acute or unequally round, apex acuminate, margin entire, glabrous, chartaceous; lateral nerves 4-7 pairs, lowest pair usually opposite, pinnate, prominent, intercostae reticulate, prominent, pellucid. Flowers unisexual, pale yellow, sessile; male flowers 7-8 mm across, in dense axillary cymes; female flowers larger, solitary; peduncle 3-5 mm long, covered with imbricating bracts; calyx 2 mm long, cupular, densely tomentose in female; lobes 4, ovate, obtuse, glabrous, margin ciliate, reflexed; corolla 10 mm long, salver shaped, densely minutely tomentose; lobes 4, 6 x 4 mm, ovate, acute, tomentose outside; stamens 36, in groups of 4; filaments glabrous, unequal; anthers shortly unequal, acute, connective thinly villous along the back; ovary superior, 8-celled, ovule 1-in each cell. Fruit a berry, globose, green, smooth."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

"
Habit

Trees up to 12 m tall.

Trunk & Bark

Bark black, smooth.

Branches and Branchlets

Branchlets terete, glabrous.

Leaves

Leaves simple, alternate, distichous; petiole 0.3-0.8 cm long, glabrous, subterete; lamina 5-13.5 x 1.5-4.5 cm, elliptic or oblong, apex acuminate with blunt tip or obtuse, base acute to rounded, margin entire, midrib flat; secondary nerves 5-8 pairs, lower most pairs close and acute in angle; tertiary nerves reticulate.

Inflorescence / Flower

Flowers unisexual; male flowers subsessile, in 3-flowered, axillary cymes, cream; female flowers subsessile, axillary, solitary, pedicels 0.2 cm long.

Fruit and Seed

Berry, globose or subglobose, to 2 cm across, apiculate, with fruiting calyx lobes accrescent, reflexed; usually 4 seeded, rarely 2-8.

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

"
Habit

Trees up to 30 m tall.

Trunk & Bark

Bark black, flaky; blaze pale dull orange to dark orange, particularly towards inside.

Branches and Branchlets

Branchlets terete, glabrous.

Leaves

Leaves simple, alternate, distichous; petiole to 1 cm long, flat above, glabrous; lamina 7-15.2 x 2.5-6 cm, narrow oblong to oblong-elliptic, apex acuminate with blunt tip, base rounded, margin entire coriaceous to subcoriaceous; midrib slightly impressed above; secondary nerves 4-7 pairs, ascending, lower most 2 pairs of nerves oblique and close; tertiary nerves reticulate or weakly percurrent.

Inflorescence / Flower

Flowers dioecious; male flowers white, in axillary clusters or in short cymes, tubular; female flowers solitary, sessile.

Fruit and Seed

Berry, globose; fruiting calyx inner rim raised; lobes reflexed; seeds 6.

"
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
An understorey tree of dry evergreen forests.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

General Habitat

Dry deciduous forests
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

General Habitat

Evergreen forests
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

General Ecology

Ecology

"Canopy trees in dry evergreen forests, up to 800 m."
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Canopy trees in low elevation wet evergreen forest up to 900 m.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: February-April
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Flowering and fruiting: February-August
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Diospyros ebenum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Diospyros ebenum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
2.3

Year Assessed
1998
  • Needs updating

Assessor/s
Asian Regional Workshop (Conservation & Sustainable Management of Trees, Viet Nam, August 1996)

Reviewer/s

Contributor/s
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Data Deficient
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
Since ancient times the species has been renowned for its black wood and it is still regarded as the best commercial black ebony.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Both India and Sri Lanka have banned the export of this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© India Biodiversity Portal

Source: India Biodiversity Portal

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Diospyros ebenum

Diospyros ebenum is a species of tree occurring in southern India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. The variety of the wood found in North Sulawesi, Indonesia is Diospyros ebenum Koenig.[1][2] It is best known for being one of the trees that yield ebony; the wood of this tree is called Ceylon Ebony or India Ebony, but often simply called "ebony". Known as "Kaluwara" by Sinhalese people due to hard black wood of the tree. Both India and Sri Lanka have laws prohibiting international trade of the wood.

The tree is a medium-sized evergreen, reaching 20–25 m tall.[3] The leaves are entire, about 6–15 cm long and 3–5 cm broad. The fruit is a small berry 2 cm diameter, similar to a small persimmon. This slow growing tree is native to dry and intermediate zones.

A medium-sized tree up to 30 m tall, bole straight, up to 90 cm in diameter, with buttresses up to 2 m high, bark surface scaly, fissured, black to grey-black. Leaves ovate-oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 5–13 cm x 2–6 cm, base cuneate to rounded, apex slightly acuminate to rounded, glabrous, tertiary venation reticulate, inconspicuous above, prominent below. Flowers mostly male and bisexual; male flowers in 3-16-flowered cymes, 4-merous, stamens 16; female and bisexual flowers solitary, 3-4 merous, calyx lobes valvate, glabrous, corolla divided to about halfway, staminodes 8, ovary with a single 4-5-lobed style and 8 uni-ovulate locules.[4] Fruit depressed globose to subglobose, up to 1.5 cm across, glabrous. D. ebenum has been known for its black wood since ancient times.

Functional Uses[edit]

  • Products

Medicine: The gummy astringent fruits are used as a medicine and eaten in times of famine. Poison: The gummy astringent fruits also used as fish poison. Timber: D. ebenum is said to produce the best commercial black ebony. It is mainly exported to China for furniture and to Europe as fancy wood.

  • Services

Shade or shelter: The tree has been planted in India as a shade tree for cardamom.

Propagation and management[edit]

  • Propagation methods

Propagation is from seed or stumps.

  • Germplasm Management

One kg contains about 9000 seeds.

References[edit]

Media related to Diospyros ebenum at Wikimedia Commons

Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!