Overview

Comprehensive Description

The virgin nerite, Neritina virginea, is a common intertidal gastropod in Florida belonging to the family Neritidae. Members of this family are characterized by a small, globular shell, and a calcareous operculum bearing one small, pointed hook at the end (Abbott & Morris 1995). The extremely polished shell of the virgin nerite has a semiglobular shape, with 3-4 whorls. Shell color is variable, and may be red, black, grayish green, tan or yellow, usually marked with lines and dots of black or purple (Abbott & Morris 1995, Andrews 1935). The operculum is smooth and generally black, closing on an oval aperture with a thin outer tip (Martins et al. 2002).
  • Kaplan, EH. 1988. A field guide to southeastern and Caribbean seashores: Cape Hatteras to the Gulf coast, Florida, and the Caribbean. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. 425 pp.
  • Abbott, RT & PA Morris. 1995. A field guide to shells: Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the West Indies, 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. Andrews, EA. 1935. Shell repair by the snail, Neritina. J. Exp. Zool. 70: 75-107.
  • Andrews, J. 1994. A field guide to shells of the Florida coast. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston, Texas. USA. 182 pp.Blanco, JF & FN Scatena. 2005. Floods, habitat hydraulics and upstream migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in northeastern Puerto Rico. Carib. J. Sci. 41: 55-74.
  • Boehs, G, Absher, TM & A da Cruz-Kaled. 2004. Composition and distribution of benthic mollusks on intertidal flats of Paranaguá Bay (Paraná, Brazil).
  • Martins, IX, Matthews-Cascon, H & C de Almeida Rocha-Barreira. 2002. On the morphology of Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Neritidae). Thalassas. 18: 9-16.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

Range Description

This species is widely distributed in the Nearctic and Neotropics. Although the type locality is given as the Mediterranean, this is considered to be in error (Andrews 1940, NatureServe 2009).

It is recorded from the Bahamas, Bermuda, Cuba, West Indies, Greater and Lesser Antilles, Puerto Rico, Central America (Panama, Guatemala, Costa Rica), Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname, Colombia, Mexico, Texas and Florida (Andrews 1940, Rosenberg 2009).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Although the type locality is in the Mediterranean, this is doubtful, as this is likely a New World Species. In America, the distribution ranges from Florida and Bermuda to the north of South America (Pointier et al., 2005).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

The virgin nerite can be found throughout the India River Lagoon, usually in association with muddy or sandy areas near submerged or intertidal vegetation such as grass flats.
  • Kaplan, EH. 1988. A field guide to southeastern and Caribbean seashores: Cape Hatteras to the Gulf coast, Florida, and the Caribbean. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. 425 pp.
  • Abbott, RT & PA Morris. 1995. A field guide to shells: Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the West Indies, 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. Andrews, EA. 1935. Shell repair by the snail, Neritina. J. Exp. Zool. 70: 75-107.
  • Andrews, J. 1994. A field guide to shells of the Florida coast. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston, Texas. USA. 182 pp.Blanco, JF & FN Scatena. 2005. Floods, habitat hydraulics and upstream migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in northeastern Puerto Rico. Carib. J. Sci. 41: 55-74.
  • Boehs, G, Absher, TM & A da Cruz-Kaled. 2004. Composition and distribution of benthic mollusks on intertidal flats of Paranaguá Bay (Paraná, Brazil).
  • Martins, IX, Matthews-Cascon, H & C de Almeida Rocha-Barreira. 2002. On the morphology of Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Neritidae). Thalassas. 18: 9-16.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Size

The maximum age of the virgin nerite is unknown, and lifespan varies with food availability and environmental conditions. The maximum shell length of N. virginea is about 1.3 cm (Abbott & Morris 1995).Reproduction &
  • Kaplan, EH. 1988. A field guide to southeastern and Caribbean seashores: Cape Hatteras to the Gulf coast, Florida, and the Caribbean. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. 425 pp.
  • Abbott, RT & PA Morris. 1995. A field guide to shells: Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the West Indies, 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. Andrews, EA. 1935. Shell repair by the snail, Neritina. J. Exp. Zool. 70: 75-107.
  • Andrews, J. 1994. A field guide to shells of the Florida coast. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston, Texas. USA. 182 pp.Blanco, JF & FN Scatena. 2005. Floods, habitat hydraulics and upstream migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in northeastern Puerto Rico. Carib. J. Sci. 41: 55-74.
  • Boehs, G, Absher, TM & A da Cruz-Kaled. 2004. Composition and distribution of benthic mollusks on intertidal flats of Paranaguá Bay (Paraná, Brazil).
  • Martins, IX, Matthews-Cascon, H & C de Almeida Rocha-Barreira. 2002. On the morphology of Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Neritidae). Thalassas. 18: 9-16.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Look Alikes

Several other species of small gastropods occur in the intertidal areas of the IRL where N. virginea is abundant. Of these, the two species that are most closely related to the virgin nerite are the olive nerite, Neritina reclivata and the Clench's nerite, N. clenchi. The shell of the olive nerite measures about 1.3 cm, is semiglobular with 3-4 whorls, smooth, solid green or greenish with tiny black lines (Abbott & Morris 1995). The operculum is dark brown to black. This species is reported to prefer brackish waters and tidal areas of streams (Abbott & Morris 1995). At a maximum of about 2 cm, the shell of the Clench's nerite is slightly larger than N. reclivata or N. virginea (Andrews 1994). The shell shape is less globular than many other Neritina species, with 3-4 four whorls and a moderately pointed apex (Abbott & Morris 1995). Shell color is variable, with an area on the interior of the shell stained orange-yellow. The operculum is black to pink in color. This species can be found in fresh to brackish waters (Abbott & Morris 1995).Regional Occurrence & Habitat Preference: The virgin nerite has been reported from Florida to Brazil, the Gulf of Mexico and Bermuda (Abbott & Morris 1995, Andrews 1994, Blanco et al. 2005, Boehs et al. 2004, Martins et al. 2002). Populations are found in intertidal areas, including mud bottoms and the roots of associated vegetation (Abbott & Morris 1995, Martins et al. 2002).
  • Kaplan, EH. 1988. A field guide to southeastern and Caribbean seashores: Cape Hatteras to the Gulf coast, Florida, and the Caribbean. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. 425 pp.
  • Abbott, RT & PA Morris. 1995. A field guide to shells: Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the West Indies, 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. Andrews, EA. 1935. Shell repair by the snail, Neritina. J. Exp. Zool. 70: 75-107.
  • Andrews, J. 1994. A field guide to shells of the Florida coast. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston, Texas. USA. 182 pp.Blanco, JF & FN Scatena. 2005. Floods, habitat hydraulics and upstream migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in northeastern Puerto Rico. Carib. J. Sci. 41: 55-74.
  • Boehs, G, Absher, TM & A da Cruz-Kaled. 2004. Composition and distribution of benthic mollusks on intertidal flats of Paranaguá Bay (Paraná, Brazil).
  • Martins, IX, Matthews-Cascon, H & C de Almeida Rocha-Barreira. 2002. On the morphology of Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Neritidae). Thalassas. 18: 9-16.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This diadromous species occurs in rivers and streams, but is also found in estuaries, brackish ponds, mangroves, and in the sea (Andrews 1940). It can withstand large changes in salinity (Andrews 1940), and is found on muddy-sandy substrates (Beasley et al. 2005). Snails have been recorded making massive upstream migrations in streams in Puerto Rico during rainy periods (Blanco and Scatena 2005).

Systems
  • Freshwater
  • Marine
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Habitat Type: Marine

Comments: This is primarily a brackish to marine species often found in river mouths (Pointier et al., 2005). This diadromous species occurs in rivers and streams, but is also found in estuaries, brackish ponds, mangroves, and in the sea (Andrews, 1940). It can withstand large changes in salinity (Andrews 1940), and is found on muddy-sandy substrates (Beasley et al., 2005). Snails have been recorded making massive upstream migrations in streams in Puerto Rico during rainy periods (Blanco and Scaten,a 2005).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 29 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.025 - 1.6

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.025 - 1.6
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

Little information is available concerning the dietary habits of N. virginea. However, most neritids feed on organisms comprising the biofilm (slime layer) on intertidal surfaces, including: algae, detritus, flagellates, diatoms and nematodes.Predators: Virgin nerites are likely preyed upon by a variety of birds, fishes and invertebrates. This species has the ability to mend its shell after failed attempts by crushing predators (Andrews 1935).
  • Kaplan, EH. 1988. A field guide to southeastern and Caribbean seashores: Cape Hatteras to the Gulf coast, Florida, and the Caribbean. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. 425 pp.
  • Abbott, RT & PA Morris. 1995. A field guide to shells: Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the West Indies, 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. Andrews, EA. 1935. Shell repair by the snail, Neritina. J. Exp. Zool. 70: 75-107.
  • Andrews, J. 1994. A field guide to shells of the Florida coast. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston, Texas. USA. 182 pp.Blanco, JF & FN Scatena. 2005. Floods, habitat hydraulics and upstream migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in northeastern Puerto Rico. Carib. J. Sci. 41: 55-74.
  • Boehs, G, Absher, TM & A da Cruz-Kaled. 2004. Composition and distribution of benthic mollusks on intertidal flats of Paranaguá Bay (Paraná, Brazil).
  • Martins, IX, Matthews-Cascon, H & C de Almeida Rocha-Barreira. 2002. On the morphology of Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Neritidae). Thalassas. 18: 9-16.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

No known obligate associations exist for N. virginea. However, virgin nerites are associated with several organisms common to muddy and sandy intertidal areas. For extensive lists of species found in these habitats and others throughout the IRL, please refer to the links at the left of this page.
  • Kaplan, EH. 1988. A field guide to southeastern and Caribbean seashores: Cape Hatteras to the Gulf coast, Florida, and the Caribbean. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. 425 pp.
  • Abbott, RT & PA Morris. 1995. A field guide to shells: Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the West Indies, 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. Andrews, EA. 1935. Shell repair by the snail, Neritina. J. Exp. Zool. 70: 75-107.
  • Andrews, J. 1994. A field guide to shells of the Florida coast. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston, Texas. USA. 182 pp.Blanco, JF & FN Scatena. 2005. Floods, habitat hydraulics and upstream migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in northeastern Puerto Rico. Carib. J. Sci. 41: 55-74.
  • Boehs, G, Absher, TM & A da Cruz-Kaled. 2004. Composition and distribution of benthic mollusks on intertidal flats of Paranaguá Bay (Paraná, Brazil).
  • Martins, IX, Matthews-Cascon, H & C de Almeida Rocha-Barreira. 2002. On the morphology of Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Neritidae). Thalassas. 18: 9-16.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Growth

Reproductive behaviors and embryology of N. virginea are poorly documented. After fertilization, the yellow, clustered eggs are laid in gelatinous capsules on nearby mollusk shells (Andrews 1994). Like many other mollusks, the virgin nerite reproduces via a planktonic larva called a veliger. These larvae remain in the water column until they reach the final stage, or pediveliger, at which time they search for a suitable location to settle and metamorphose into juvenile snails.
  • Kaplan, EH. 1988. A field guide to southeastern and Caribbean seashores: Cape Hatteras to the Gulf coast, Florida, and the Caribbean. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. 425 pp.
  • Abbott, RT & PA Morris. 1995. A field guide to shells: Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the West Indies, 4th edition. Houghton Mifflin Co. Boston, MA. USA. Andrews, EA. 1935. Shell repair by the snail, Neritina. J. Exp. Zool. 70: 75-107.
  • Andrews, J. 1994. A field guide to shells of the Florida coast. Gulf Publishing Co. Houston, Texas. USA. 182 pp.Blanco, JF & FN Scatena. 2005. Floods, habitat hydraulics and upstream migration of Neritina virginea (Gastropoda: Neritidae) in northeastern Puerto Rico. Carib. J. Sci. 41: 55-74.
  • Boehs, G, Absher, TM & A da Cruz-Kaled. 2004. Composition and distribution of benthic mollusks on intertidal flats of Paranaguá Bay (Paraná, Brazil).
  • Martins, IX, Matthews-Cascon, H & C de Almeida Rocha-Barreira. 2002. On the morphology of Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758) (Gastropoda, Neritidae). Thalassas. 18: 9-16.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
Cordeiro, J. & Perez, K.

Reviewer/s
Bohm, M., Seddon, M. & Collen, B.

Contributor/s
Richman, N., Dyer, E., Soulsby, A.-M., Whitton, F., Kasthala, G., McGuinness, S., Milligan, HT, De Silva, R., Herdson, R., Thorley, J., McMillan, K., Collins, A., Offord, S. & Duncan, C.

Justification
Neritina virginea has been assessed as Least Concern due to the species' widespread and stable distribution with no current threats significantly impacting the global population.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Although the type locality is in the Mediterranean, this is doubtful, as this is likely a New World Species. In America, the distribution ranges from Florida and Bermuda to the north of South America (Pointier et al., 2005).

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population

Population
This species is widespread and abundant.

Population Trend
Stable
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Major Threats
There are no known major threats affecting this species, although it may be sensitive to changes in estuarine habitats, which is required for fresh to salt water migrations.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species has a Global Heritage Status of G5 - Secure (NatureServe 2009).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources

Source: IUCN

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Neritina virginea

Neritina virginea is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Neritidae.[1]

Contents

Description

Distribution

This species occurs in the brackish waters on the West Indian island of Dominica.[2]

References

  1. ^ Neritina virginea (Linnaeus, 1758).  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 5 May 2010.
  2. ^ (German) Starmühlner F. von (1988). "Ergebnisse der Österreichisch-Französischen Hydrobiologischen Mission 1979 nach Guadeloupe, Dominica und Martinique (Kleine Antillen). Teil II: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Süß- und Brackwassermollusken von Guadeloupe, Dominica und Martinique". Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien Serie B, 90: 221-340. PDF.
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: marine species

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!