Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Dry deciduous forests
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Herb
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Description

Branched annual herb, up to 60 cm tall, erect when young, older branches spreading. Young branches compressed and angular hairless or sparsely hairy. Leaves oblong to lanceolate, up to 11 cm, hairless or sparsely hairy on the veins; margins crenate-serrate with a long bristle on the 2 lowermost teeth. Flowers in 1-3 flowered leaf-opposed clusters; sepals linear, pointed, as long as the petals. Fruit a more or less erect, cylindric capsule, straight or slightly curved, up to 4 cm long, with a finely rough surface and 3 spreading apical horns.
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Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Derivation of specific name

tridens: 3-toothed
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Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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"Found in fallow lands from plains to 600m. Common. Tropical and subtropical countries of Africa, Asia and N.Australia."
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"
Global Distribution

Pantropical

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Idukki, Palakkad

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"Maharashtra: Kolhapur, Nasik Kerala: Idukki"
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Worldwide distribution

Widespread in the Old World tropics and subtropics.
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Distribution: Widespread in tropical and subtropical countries of Africa, Asia and in North Australia.
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Most tropical countries.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In leaf-opposed cymes, 2-5-flowered; yellow. Flowering throughout the year.

Fruit

A terete capsule, not winged, beak 3-fid, spreading; seeds many, truncate. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Leaves 3 or 4-nerved from base, leaf base with serrature appendages.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate distichous

Leaf Type

Simple

Leaf Shape

Oblong-lanceolate

Leaf Apex

Acuminate

Leaf Base

Cuneate

Leaf Margin

Serrate

"
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Description

An erect or suberect, 30-60 cm tall, annual herb. Stem and branches glabrous. Leaves 3-4-costate, oblong-lanceolate or linear-lanceolate or somewhat elliptic-obovate, 1.5-9 cm long, 0.6-2.2 cm broad, glabrous except the sparsely hairy veins, crenate-serrate, basal serratures prolonged into filiform spreading appendages or not, acute; petiole 5-12 mm long, hairy; stipules setaceous, 2-3 mm long. Cyme 1-3(-4)-flowered, antiphyllous, short peduncled. Flowers yellow, c. 1 cm across, subsessile; bracts subulate, 3-4 mm long. Sepals linear-oblong, 4-5 mm long, c. 2 mm broad, apiculate. Petals oblong, 3-4 mm long, c. 2 mm broad, obtuse. Stamens 10-15, filaments 4-5 mm long. Carpels 3; ovary cylindric, sulcate, 3-loculed, hairy; style small, stigma sparsely papillate. Capsules 1-3 together, erect, cylindrical, 1.5-4 cm long, c. 2 mm in diameter, not ribbed, glabrous, terminated by 3 spreading bifid tips, 3-loculed, locules aseptate. Seeds angular, obliquely truncate at both ends, black.
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Elevation Range

150 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Woody glabrous herbs. Leaves 4.5 x 0.8 cm, oblong, elliptic, crenate, membranous, apex obtuse, lower teeth prolonged into hairs, puberulus below; petiole 0.5 cm, stipules linear, to 6 mm. Cymes axillary; peduncles to 3 mm; bracts and bracteoles 5 mm; sepals 4, 4 mm, linear, glabrous; petals 5 mm, obovate, yellow; stamens 10; ovary 2 mm, oblong, style 1 mm, stigma trifid. Capsule 3 x 0.2 cm, terete, glabrous, 3-toothed at apex; many seeded."
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Diagnostic

Habit: An erect subshrub upto 80cm.
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Diagnostic

Habit: Herb
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Dry deciduous forests
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: Throughout the year
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: July-November.
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Notes

Comments

Common throughout Pakistan in cultivated fields and wastelands on sandy alluvial moist soils, particularly after rains.

The young leaves and shoots are used as pot herb in India, Pakistan, tropical Africa and are sometimes dried for this purpose to be used in soup. It is commonly eaten by goats and camels. The stem yields a good fibre which is used in north Nigeria and elsewhere for fishing lines.

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