The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • 1996. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2000. database, The PLANTS Database
  • 2011. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN)
  • Flora Peruviana, et Chilensis 3: 77, t. 314. 1802. (Fl. Peruv.)
  • Foster, R. C. 1958. A catalogue of the ferns and flowering plants of Bolivia. Contr. Gray Herb. 184: 1–223.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & C. Ulloa Ulloa. 1994. Seed plants of the high Andes of Ecuador–A checklist. AAU Rep. 34: 1–443.
  • Jørgensen, P. M. & S. León-Yánez. (eds.) 1999. Cat. Vasc. Pl. Ecuador, Monogr. Syst. Bot. Miss. Bot. Gard. 75: i–viii, 1–1181. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
  • Luteyn, J. L. 1999. Páramos, a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature. Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 84: viii–xv, 1–278.
  • Orrell T. (custodian) (2015). ITIS Regional: The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (version Dec 2014). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Rusby, H. H. 1893. On the collections of Mr. Miguel Bang in Bolivia. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 3(3): 1–67.
  • Sparre, B. 1973. 89. Tropaeolaceae. 2: 1–31. In G. W. Harling & B. B. Sparre (eds.) Fl. Ecuador. University of Göteborg & Swedish Museum of Natural History, Göteborg & Stockholm.
  • Sparre, B. B. & L. Andersson. 1991. A taxonomic revision of the Tropaeolaceae. Opera Bot. 108: 1–140.
  • Tropaeolaceae of North America Update


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