Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Cultivated.
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Distribution

"Maharashtra: Kolhapur Karnataka: Coorg, Hassan, N. Kanara, Shimoga Kerala: All districts"
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"Found in deciduous forests from plains to 1000m, often planted in the home gardens. Common. India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Indo-China, S.China and Hainan."
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Guangdong, S Hainan, S Yunnan (Xishuangbanna) [Bhutan, India, Laos, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam].
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Distribution: Along the foothills of Himalayas in India and Pakistan, Assam to Siam, China, Ceylon.
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Himalaya (Garhwal to Sikkim), India, Ceylon, Burma, Indo-China, China. Frequently cultivated.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"
Flower

In terminal panicles; white, fragrant. Flowering from March-May and July-August.

Fruit

A subglobose berry, purplish-black when ripe; seeds upto 2. Fruiting throughout the year.

Field tips

Leaves aromatic when crushed.

Leaf Arrangement

Alternate-spiral

Leaf Type

Paripinnate

Leaf Shape

Oblong-lanceolate

Leaf Apex

Emarginate

Leaf Base

Oblique

Leaf Margin

Entire

"
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Description

Shrubs or trees, to 4 m tall. Leaves 17-31-foliolate; leaflet blades ovate, 2-5 × 0.5-2 cm, base obtuse to rounded and oblique, margin entire or crenulate. Inflorescences terminal, paniculate, many flowered. Flowers 5-merous, ellipsoid in bud. Sepals ovate, less than 1 mm. Petals white, oblanceolate to oblong, 5-7 mm. Stamens 10. Stigma capitate. Fruit bluish black, ovoid to oblong, 1-1.5 cm, 1- or 2-seeded. Seed coat membranous. Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. Jul-Aug.
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Description

Small tree, c. 3.5 m tall, branches pubescent. Leaves imparipinnate; leaflets 9-27, 20-50 x 11-28 mm, ovate to ovate-lanceolate or orbicular, oblique, acute to obtuse, apex retuse, margin irregularly crenulate. Flowers white, in terminal, branched cymes. Calyx lobes 5, triangular. Petals 7 mm, linear-oblong, glandular. Ovary 2 locular, ovules 1(-2) in each locule; style short; stigma captitate. Berry ovoid, 1 x 6 mm, black when ripe.
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Elevation Range

150-1450 m
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Habit: A medium-sized tree, to up10m."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub to Small tree
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Synonym

Bergera koenigii Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 2: 555, 563. 1771; Chalcas koenigii (Linnaeus) Kurz.
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Ecology

Habitat

Moist forests; 500-1600 m.
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: April-June. Fr. Per.: June-Aug.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Murraya koenigii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Murraya koenigii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Folklore

Leaves used in curries as a flavouring agent.

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Uses

The leaves are an important flavouring in South indian cooking. Leaves have slight pungent taste. Regular intake of the leaves is recommended for good health.

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Wikipedia

Curry tree

This article is about Murraya koenigii, a tree which produces an aromatic leaf often used in Indian cuisine. For the European plant sometimes referred to as Curry Plant, see Helichrysum italicum. For the dish or sauce, see Curry.

The curry tree (Murraya koenigii) is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae (the rue family, which includes rue, citrus, and sandalwood), which is native to India and Sri Lanka.

Its leaves are used in many dishes in India and neighbouring countries. Often used in curries, the leaves are generally called by the name 'curry leaves,' although they are also literally 'sweet neem leaves' in most Indian languages (as opposed to ordinary neem leaves which are very bitter and in the family Meliaceae, not Rutaceae).

Description[edit]

The small flowers are white and fragrant.
Ripe and unripe fruits.

It is a small tree, growing 4–6 m (13–20 feet) tall, with a trunk up to 40 cm (16 in) diameter. The aromatic leaves are pinnate, with 11-21 leaflets, each leaflet 2–4 cm (0.79–1.57 in) long and 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) broad. The plant produces small white flowers which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny-black berries containing a single, large viable seed. Though the berry pulp is edible -- with a sweet but medicinal flavor -- in general, neither the pulp nor seed are used for culinary purposes.

The species name commemorates the botanist Johann König.

Uses[edit]

The leaves are highly valued as seasoning in southern and west-coast Indian cooking, and Sri Lankan cooking ( කරපිංචා), especially in curries, usually fried along with the chopped onion in the first stage of the preparation. They are also used to make thoran, vada, rasam and kadhi. In their fresh form, they have a short shelf life and do not keep well in the refrigerator. They are also available dried, though the aroma is largely inferior.

The leaves of Murraya koenigii are also used as an herb in Ayurvedic medicine. They are believed to possess anti-diabetic properties.[2][3][unreliable medical source?][4]

Although most commonly used in curries, leaves from the curry tree can be used in many other dishes to add flavor. In Cambodia, Khmer toast the leaves in an open flame or roast it until crispy and then crush it into a soured soup dish called Maju Krueng.

In the absence of tulsi leaves, curry leaves are used for rituals and pujas.

Propagation[edit]

Seeds must be ripe and fresh to plant; dried or shrivelled fruits are not viable. One can plant the whole fruit, but it is best to remove the pulp before planting in potting mix that is kept moist but not wet.

Stem cuttings can be also used for propagation.

Chemical constituents[edit]

Girinimbine structure

Some of the primary alkaloids found in the Curry Tree leaves, stems, and seeds are as follows: Mahanimbine, girinimbine, koenimbine, isomahanine, mahanine, Indicolactone, 2-methoxy-3-methyl-carbazole.[5]

A 2011 study of girinimbine, a carbazole alkaloid isolated from this plant, found that it inhibited the growth and induced apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells in vitro.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Murraya koenigii information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2008-03-11. 
  2. ^ Arulselvan P, Senthilkumar GP, Sathish Kumar D, Subramanian S (Oct 2006). "Anti-diabetic effect of Murraya koenigii leaves on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats". Pharmazie 61 (10): 874–7. PMID 17069429. 
  3. ^ Rashmee Z Ahmed (30 September 2004). "Traditional diabetes remedy offers hope". The Times Of India. 
  4. ^ Arulselvan P, Subramanian SP (Jan 2007). "Beneficial effects of Murraya koenigii leaves on antioxidant defense system and ultra structural changes of pancreatic beta-cells in experimental diabetes in rats". Chem Biol Interact. 165 (2): 155–64. doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2006.10.014. PMID 17188670. 
  5. ^ Jain, et al., Vandana (2012). "Murraya Koenigii: An Updated Review". International Journal Of Ayurvedic And Herbal Medicine 2 (2): 607:627. ISSN 2249-5746. Retrieved 2014-10-11. 
  6. ^ Syam, Suvitha; Abdul, Ahmad Bustamam; Sukari, Mohd. Aspollah; Mohan, Syam; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Wah, Tang Sook (2011). "The Growth Suppressing Effects of Girinimbine on Hepg2 Involve Induction of Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest". Molecules 16 (8): 7155–70. doi:10.3390/molecules16087155. PMID 21862957. 
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Notes

Comments

Not commonly found in the wild state. The ‘curry leaf’ is frequently cultivated in gardens. Leaves are used as a condiment to flavour curries.
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