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Overview

Comprehensive Description

General Description

Trees, 1-10 m tall; buds glabrous or subglabrous. branchlets glabrous to pubescent, terminal buds glabrous to tomentose. Leaf rachis terete; Petiole 6-9 cm, glabrous or pubescent; rachis terete or narrowly winged distally, glabrous to pubescent; leaf blade imparipinnately compound, 20-35 cm; leaflets 9-15, opposite or subopposite; leaflet petiolule 2-5 mm; leaflet blade oblong-elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, 5-16 cm long, 1-5.5 cm wide, papery or thinly leathery, glabrous on both surfaces, glaucous abaxially, base oblique, rounded or broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex acuminate to caudate-acuminate, lateral veins 15-22 pairs, slightly prominent on both surfaces. Inflorescence paniculate, 7-15 cm, many branched, glabrous. Pedicel ca. 2 mm; flowers yellowish green, ca. 2 mm in diameter. Calyx glabrous, lobes broadly ovate, ca. 1 mm, obtuse apically. Petals oblong, ca. 2 mm, obtuse apically, with ± conspicuous featherlike venation pattern, revolute at anthesis. Stamens exserted; filaments linear, ca. 2 mm; anthers ovoid, ca. 1 mm. Disk 5-lobed. Ovary globose, glabrous. Drupe large, asymmetrical, 7-10 mm in diameter, compressed, apex eccentric; epicarp thin, yellow, glabrous; mesocarp thick, white, waxy, with brown longitudinal resin ducts.
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© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

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Distribution

Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang [Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam].
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Toxicodendron succedaneum is occurring in Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Taiwan, SE Xizang, Yunnan, Zhejiang of China, Cambodia, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam.
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© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Toxicodendron succedaneum (L.) Kuntze:
Cambodia (Asia)
India (Asia)
Japan (Asia)
Laos (Asia)
South Korea (Asia)
Thailand (Asia)
Vietnam (Asia)
China (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Trees or shrubs, 1-2(-10) m tall; branchlets glabrous to pubescent, terminal buds glabrous to tomentose. Petiole 6-9 cm, glabrous or pubescent; rachis terete or narrowly winged distally, glabrous to pubescent; leaf blade imparipinnately compound, 20-35 cm; leaflets 5-15, opposite or subopposite; leaflet petiolule indistinct or 2-5 mm; leaflet blade oblong-elliptic to ovate-lanceolate, 3-16 × 0.9-5.5 cm, papery or thinly leathery, glabrous to sparsely pubescent on both surfaces, glaucous abaxially, base oblique, rounded or broadly cuneate, margin entire, apex acuminate to caudate-acuminate, lateral veins 15-22 pairs, slightly prominent on both surfaces. Inflorescence paniculate, 7-15 cm, many branched, glabrous. Pedicel ca. 2 mm; flowers yellowish green, ca. 2 mm in diam. Calyx glabrous, lobes broadly ovate, ca. 1 mm, obtuse apically. Petals oblong, ca. 2 mm, obtuse apically, with ± conspicuous featherlike venation pattern, revolute at anthesis. Stamens exserted; filaments linear, ca. 2 mm; anthers ovoid, ca. 1 mm. Disk 5-lobed. Ovary globose, glabrous. Drupe large, asymmetrical, 7-10 mm in diam., compressed, apex eccentric; epicarp thin, yellow, glabrous; mesocarp thick, white, waxy, with brown longitudinal resin ducts.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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Diagnostic Description

Toxicodendron succedaneum is close relative of Toxicodendron kiangsiense, but differs from the latter in its glabrous or subglabrous (vs. yellow tomentose) buds, glabrous (vs. sparsely pubescent) leaves.
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© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

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Ecology

Habitat

Lowland and hill forests, lowland thickets on limestone; 100-1500(-2500) m.
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Growing in lowland and hill forest; 300-2500 m.
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© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering in May; fruiting from July to October.
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© Wen, Jun

Source: Plants of Tibet

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Toxicodendron succedaneum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rhus succedanea

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 14
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Toxicodendron succedaneum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

From fruits of Toxicodendron succedaneum a wax is extracted for use in varnishes and polishes.
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Wikipedia

Toxicodendron succedaneum

Toxicodendron succedaneum, the wax tree, Japanese wax tree or sơn in Vietnam, is a flowering plant species in the genus Toxicodendron found in Asia, although it has been planted elsewhere, most notably Australia and New Zealand. It is a large shrub or tree, up to 8 m tall, somewhat similar to a sumac tree. Because of its beautiful autumn foliage, it has been planted outside of Asia as an ornamental plant, often by gardeners who were apparently unaware of the dangers of allergic reactions. It is now officially classified as a noxious weed in Australia and New Zealand. It is one of the city tree symbols of Kurume, Fukuoka, Japan.

The larvae of the moths Eteoryctis deversa, Caloptilia aurifasciata, Caloptilia protiella, Caloptilia rhois and Callidrepana patrana feed on T. succedaneum.

Chemistry[edit]

The plant produces hinokiflavone, a cytotoxic biflavonoid.[1]

Uses[edit]

It is also used to produce lacquer. In Vietnam, it is used to produce lacquer paintings, known as sơn mài, from resin of the tree.

In East Asia, in particular in Japan, traditional candle fuel (also called Japan wax) was produced, among other sumac plants, from Rhus succedanea crushed fruits rather than beeswax or animal fats. Japan wax is a byproduct of lacquer manufacture. It is not a true wax but a fat that contains 10-15% palmitin, stearin, and olein with about 1% japanic acid (1,21-heneicosanedioic acid). Japan wax is sold in flat squares or disks and has a rancid odor. It is extracted by expression and heat, or by the action of solvents. The fatty-acid methyl ester of the kernel oil meets all of the major biodiesel requirements in the USA (ASTM D 6751-02, ASTM PS 121-99), Germany (DIN V 51606) and European Union (EN 14214).[2]

It is used as a medicinal plant in India.

The fruits are edible though their consumption is not recommended because of the general toxicity of the plant.

Images gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lin, YM; Chen, FC; Lee, KH (1989). "Hinokiflavone, a cytotoxic principle from Rhus succedanea and the cytotoxicity of the related biflavonoids". Planta medica 55 (2): 166–8. doi:10.1055/s-2006-961914. PMID 2526343. 
  2. ^ Mohibbeazam, M; Waris, A; Nahar, N (2005). "Prospects and potential of fatty acid methyl esters of some non-traditional seed oils for use as biodiesel in India". Biomass and Bioenergy 29 (4): 293. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2005.05.001. 
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Notes

Comments

From the fruits of this species a wax is extracted for use in varnishes and polishes.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

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