Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Mangroves
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Tree
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is found in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Viet Nam, and southern Papua New Guinea.
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Range Description

In South Asia this species is found in Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Viet Nam. In Australasia it is found in Southwest Australia, Northwest Australia, Northeast Australia, Southeast Australia, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu. The species also occurs in Guam and Micronesia.

It can be found in East Africa and the Middle East including Bahrain, Djbouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Maldives, Mozambique, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen.
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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: "Native to New Zealand, Australasia. First planted in CA in 1960's, becoming weedy, extirpation attempted, but plants persistent in 1990 (Moran. 1980. Madrono 27:143)" (Hickman, 1993).

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"Maharashtra: Raigad, Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Thane Kerala: Alapuzha, Kannur, Kasaragod, Kollam, Kozhikode, Malapuram, Thrissur Tamil Nadu: Cuddalore, Kancheepuram, Ramanathapuram, Thiruvallur, Thoothukkudi"
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"
Global Distribution

Paleotropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Alappuzha, Kollam, Kozhikkode, Malappuram, Thrissur, Kannur, Kasaragode, Kottayam, Ernakulam

"
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Distribution in Egypt

Res Sea coastal strip, Sinai (St.Katherine), and Napq.

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Global Distribution

Tropical seashores and estuary river banks of the Old World.

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Distribution: Tidal swamps and creeks from Red Sea Area to Arabian Sea Coast of W. Pakistan and Bombay (India),
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Shrub, rarely attaining the size of a small tree, 1-3 (–5) m tall with pale branches. Pneumatophores 10-20 (—25) cm long. Leaves lanceolate to ovate-elliptic, coriaceous 3-8 cm long, 1.5-3.5 cm broad, very acute to acuminate, entire; glabrous and shining green above, whitish-tomentose beneath, turning somewhat blackish when dried; petiole short, 3-5 (—8) mm long, usually margined with a very narrow lamina. Flowers dingy yellow with somewhat orange throat, sessile, in heads at the apex of stout, angular peduncles and often with an opposite pair much down below on the same peduncle. Bract and 2 bracteoles concave, ovate to suborbicular, shorter than the sepals (except the bracts of the lowest flowers), ciliate; bract (2.5—) 3-4 mm long, 1.5-3 mm broad, acute; bracteole 2-3.5 mm long, 2-2.5 mm broad. Calyx 5-partite almost to the base, or sepals (3—) 3.5-4 mm long, 2.5-3 mm broad, broadly ovate to suborbicular, connate at the base, concave, obtuse, somewhat ciliate and tomentose on the back. Corolla c. 5 mm in diam., 5-6 mm long; tube very short; lobes 4, ovate, acute, subequal, slightly exceeding the calyx, c.1.5. mm in diam. Stamens 4, sub-sessile included, inserted at the mouth and alternating with corolla lobes. Ovary ellipsoid-linear, about as long as the tube of corolla, villous; style shorter than the ovary, 2-fid. Capsule broadly ellipsoid or ovoid, 12-18 mm long, 10-12 mm broad, compressed, ± apiculate, pale green or slightly greyish-tomentose; seed usually 1, large, often germinating on the plant (viviparous); embryo with plumule enlarged before falling.
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Description

Branchlets ridged when young. Leaves subsessile; leaf blade elliptic to ovate, 2-7 X × 2-3.5 cm, leathery, abaxially pubescent, adaxially glabrous and shiny, base acuminate, margin entire. Inflorescences capitate; peduncle 1-2.5 cm. Flowers ca. 5 mm in diam. Calyx and corolla outside densely pubescent, inside subglabrous, margin densely persistent ciliate. Stamens slightly exserted. Ovary densely pubescent. Style short, 2-cleft. Fruit nearly ovoid, ca. 1.2 cm in diam., pubescent.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Much branched evergreen trees to 7 m high, pneumatophores, straight, pencil like, brown; bark grey, yellowish-grey or brown, smooth, occasionally flaky; branchlets more or less 4-angled, swollen at nodes. Leaves simple, opposite, decussate, estipulate; petiole 2-8 mm long, stout, yellowish-green with a basal groove having dark or black marginal hairs continuous in a line across the node; lamina 1.8-10.2 x 1-5 cm, ovate, lanceolate, narrowly elliptic-oblong or elliptic-ovate; base cuneate; apex acute; margin entire, glabrous above, silvery white tomentose beneath, coriaceous; lateral nerves 4-7 pairs, parallel, obscure; intercostae reticulate, faint. Flowers bisexual, yellow, 5 mm long, in axillary or terminal compound spikes; peduncle to 8 cm long; flowers arranged in dense capitate units; bracts 2 x 1.5 mm, small, triangular, brownish-green, glabrous within, densely pubescent, bracteoles 2, similar to bracts, both persistent in the fruit; calyx brownish-green, sepals 5, slightly united at base, 3 x 2 mm, unequal, triangular, acute, glabrous within, densely pubescent outside, persistent; corolla yellow, glabrous within, fleshy, silvery pubescent outside, corolla tube upto 1.5 mm long, lobes 4, 2.5 x 2.5 mm, subequal, elliptic, reflexed and blackens on maturity; stamens as many as corolla lobes, filaments very short; anthers bilobed; ovary 2.5 mm long, imperfectly unilocular; ovules 4, pendulous, attached to the tip of the central 4-winged axis; style short, solid; stigma 2-lobed. Fruit a capsule, greenish, 2.5 x 1.8 cm, more or less rounded, apex acute, pericarp thick, coriaceous, silvery tomentose; seed one."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Shrub
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Synonym

Sceura marina Forsskål, Fl. Aegypt.-Arab. 37. 1775.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in the intermediate estuarine zone in the lower intertidal region. It is shade intolerant with a maximum porewater salinity of 63 ppt (Robertson and Alongi, 1992). This species grows on soft, recently consolidated mudbanks. This species is a tree or shrub that grows to 25 m, but is more often seen at 5-10 m. This species is a fast-growing species. It is a colonizing species on newly formed mudflats in SE Asia. (Terrados et al. 1997) and has a high tolerance of hypersaline conditions (Tomlinson 1986).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Avicennia marina is a shrub to medium sized tree, 2-5 m tall (Peng and Xin-men 1983). This species is found from downstream to intermediate estuarine zones in all intertidal regions (Robertson and Alongi 1992). It is found at the mouth of rivers or in lower tidal areas (Peng and Xin-men 1983). It is shade intolerant with a maximum porewater salinity of 85 ppt. Optimal growth occurs at a salinity of 0-30 ppt (Robertson and Alongi 1992).

This is a pioneer species on newly formed habitats of mud with a high proportion of sand, but does not seem to grow on pure mud (Peng and Xin-men 1983). It is a hardy species in natural conditions and regenerates quickly from coppices, both as individuals and as a species. It is a colonizing species on newly formed mudflats in SE Asia (Terrados et al. 1997), and has a high tolerance to hypersaline conditions.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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Comments: Coastal salt marsh; +/- 0 m.

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General Habitat

Along backwaters and rmangrove forests
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Coastal mud flats, tidal zone.

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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Habitat & Distribution

Maritime. Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Taiwan [E Africa, S and SE Asia, N Australia].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: March-July
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Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per. Feb.—June.
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Life Expectancy

Perennial.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Avicennia marina

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Avicennia marina

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 58
Specimens with Barcodes: 63
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T.

Reviewer/s
Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and common within its range. It is threatened by the loss of mangrove habitat throughout its range, primarily due to extraction and coastal development, and there has been an estimated 24% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S., Miyagi, T., Ellison, J., Koedam, N.E., Wang, Y., Primavera, J., Jin Eong, O., Wan-Hong Yong, J. & Ngoc Nam, V.

Reviewer/s
Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and common thoughout its range. It is a fast growing and fast regenerating, hardy species. It is threatened by the loss of mangrove habitat throughout its range, primarily due to extraction and coastal development, and there has been an estimated 21% decline in mangrove area within this species range since 1980. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. Although there are overall range declines in many areas, they are not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

Reasons: Native to New Zealand and Australasia, weedy and naturalized in CA.

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Population

Population
This species is common within its range. In India, this species was found in 45% of 100 sampling sites (Kathiresan 2008).

This species can have different leaf morphologies that may be influenced by environmental factors. The different varieties have been indicated by preliminary genetic studies (Duke et al. 1998).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Population

Population
This is a very common, widespread species.

A species specific dieback was observed in Queensland affecting 30 km² of mangrove in five separate estuaries. The dieback began in 1998 and was observed by Duke et al. (2005) during surveys taken between 2000 and 2002. Apparent causes include high concentrations of the herbicide diuron and excessive nutrients, which may have facilitated the uptake of toxic compounds (Duke et al. 2005). Between 1980 and 2000 there was a 16% loss in the region (Duke et al. 2007). Overall, there is an average of 0.8% habitat decline per year within the distribution of this species (Duke et al. 2007).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
This species is locally threatened by consumption by domestic livestock (goats, buffalo, cattle). Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 24% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).

All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/ fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.

In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
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Major Threats
This species is highly sensitive to herbicides (N. Duke pers. comm.). Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 21% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).

All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.

In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation measures include planting, legal protection, protected areas, and sustainable use management. In Bangladesh and India this species is grown in plantations. This species range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Conservation measures for this species include planting, management for sustainable use, and legal protection in some areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Avicennia marina

Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae). As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas.

Distribution[edit]

Grey mangrove in a lagoon, Batticaloa, Sri Lanka

It is distributed along Africa's east coast, south-west, south and south-east Asia, and Australia. It occurs in New Zealand between 34 and 38 degrees south; its Māori name is mānawa. It is one of the few mangroves found in the arid regions of the coastal Arabian Peninsula, mainly in sabkha environments in the United Arab Emirates,[1] Qatar,[2] Oman,[3] as well as in similar environments on both side of the Red Sea (in Yemen,[4] Saudi Arabia,[5] Egypt,[6] Eritrea,[7] and Sudan),[8] and southern Iran[9] along the Persian Gulf coast.[10] It is also found in the mangroves[clarification needed] of South Africa where it is one of the two most dominant mangroves.[11] The species is also found in Somalia.[12]

Australia[edit]

In Australia, it extends much farther south than other mangroves, occurring in every mainland state.

Its distribution is disjunct in Western Australia; the population of the Abrolhos Islands is 300 kilometres further south than the nearest population of Shark Bay. Another mangrove system is found even further south (500 km) at Bunbury. This colonisation of southerly climes may have occurred relatively recently, perhaps several thousand years ago, when they were transferred by the Leeuwin Current.[13] The most inland occurrence of mangroves in Australia is a stand of grey mangroves in the Mandora Marsh, some 60 km from the coast.

In South Australia along the Barker Inlet and Port River in Gulf St Vincent, as well as in sheltered bays in Spencer Gulf and the west coast of Eyre Peninsula, A. marina forests form hatcheries for much of the state's fish and shellfish commercial and recreational fisheries.[14]

Description[edit]

Excreted salt on the underside of a Avicennia marina var. resinifera leaf

Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of three to ten metres, or up to 14 metres in tropical regions. The habit is a gnarled arrangement of multiple branches. It has smooth light-grey bark made up of thin, stiff, brittle flakes. This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name. The leaves are thick, five to eight centimetres long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or grey, with very small matted hairs on the surface below. As with other Avicennia species, it has aerial roots (pneumatophores); these grow to a height of about 20 centimetres, and a diameter of one centimetre. These allow the plant to absorb oxygen, which is deficient in its habitat. These roots also anchor the plant during the frequent inundation of seawater in the soft substrate of tidal systems. The flowers range from white to a golden yellow colour, are less than a centimetre across, and occur in clusters of three to five. The fruit contains large cotyledons that surround the new stem of a seedling. This produces a large fleshy seed, often germinating on the tree and falling as a seedling.[14] The grey mangrove can experience stunted growth in water conditions that are too saline, but thrive to their full height in waters where both salt and fresh water are present. The species can tolerate high salinity by excreting salts through its leaves.[13]

Avicennia marina var. resinifera fruit

Grey mangrove is a highly variable tree, with a number of ecotypes, and forms closely resembling other species. It has been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high winds, and various pests and diseases. It is a pioneer in muddy soil conditions with a PH value of 6.5 to 8, but is intolerant of shade. A number of botanists have proposed division of the species, but currently three subspecies are recognised:


References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mangrove_Fisheries". [dead link]
  2. ^ "Mangrove Conservation Programme". 
  3. ^ "Mangrove_Arabian Wildlife". 
  4. ^ "Mangrove_World Resource Institute". [dead link]
  5. ^ "KFUPM ePrints". [dead link]
  6. ^ "The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species". 
  7. ^ "Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh._PROTA". 
  8. ^ "FAO Corporate Document Repository_Sudan". 
  9. ^ "Avicennia marina_UNESCO". [dead link]
  10. ^ Muhammad Aurang Zeb., Mughal (2013). "Persian Gulf Desert and Semi-desert.". Biomes & Ecosystems. Ipswich MA: Salem Press. pp. 1000–1002. 
  11. ^ B., van Wyk; P., van Wyk (1997). Field Guide to trees of South Africa. Struik, Cape Town. ISBN 9781868259229. 
  12. ^ Spalding, Mark; Kainuma, Mami; Collins, Lorna (2010). World atlas of mangroves. London: Earthscan. ISBN 1849776601. 
  13. ^ a b Rippey, Elizabeth; Rowland (Reinette), Barbara (2004) [1995]. Coastal plants: Perth and the south-west region (2nd ed.). Perth: UWA Press. ISBN 1-920694-05-6. 
  14. ^ a b Bagust, Phil; Tout-Smith, Lynda (2005). The Native Plants of Adelaide. Department for Environment and Heritage. p. 100. ISBN 0-646-44313-5. 

Sushil badhir

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It differs from A. officinalis L. and A. alba Blume, the S.E. Asian species, by its very acute or acuminate leaves, shrubby habit and slightly smaller flowers and fruits. A. officinalis L. and several allied taxa need a critical revision, specially with regards to leaf shape variations, flower and fruit characters, with adequate material. The bark is said to have tanning properties and leaves are used as fodder for camel and goats. It forms the dominant mangrove vegetation of Karachi coast or the Arabians sea coast of West Pakistan, but appears to be under collected in our area due to difficult approach to it through swamps and mud.
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