Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Brevard, Broward, Collier, Dade, Flagler, Hendry, Indian River, Levy, Martin, Monroe, Palm Beach, St. Johns, St. Lucie, and Volusia counties, Florida.

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Physical Description

Diagnostic Description

Similar to G. tampensis; distinguished by glandular haired calyx and leaf characteristics (leaves dentate to pinnatifid, somewhat succulent) (Wunderlin, 1982).

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Sandy clearings in coastal dune swales, scrub, pinelands, and open live oak-cabbage palm woods (Kral 1983). Also found in disturbed clearings (L. Chafin, pers. comm. 3/96).

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 80

Comments: 58 occurrences as of 11/17/97.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Persistence: PERENNIAL

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Reproduction

Reproduction sexual with no apomixis (Umber 1979). Fruits are small nutlets, probably self-dispersed.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: The number of element occurrences and number of individuals are relatively high, although the species' habitat is under great pressure from coastal development and is invaded by Casuarina. The number of collections and observations since 1980 is fairly low, but a high number of occurrences are on managed conservation lands.

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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: Rapid coastal development has eliminated much of the dune habitat for this species.

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Threats

Comments: Threatened by loss of habitat to residential and commercial development and to silviculture.

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Management

Biological Research Needs: Investigate reproductive biology of species. Provide land managers with information on biology of species for inclusion in management plans.

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: USFWS tracks as Verbena maritima (9/93).

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Disclaimer

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