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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This plant is a European endemic where it can be found from Scandinavia in the north to the Balkans and from France in the west to Ukraine in the east (Bennett 2003, USDA ARS National Genetic Resources Program 2012, Valdés 2011).
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A perennial herb, it grows in damp open woodland, including oak, hornbeam, lime, sycamore and beech woods, and is also found scrub. It is found from lowlands to mountain areas and prefers nutrient rich alkali soils. Its over wintering buds are at ground level (hemicryptophyte) and it flowers between March and May. It is pollinated by insects that are rewarded with nectar (Bundesamt für Naturschutz 2012). It is associated with the Anemono nemorosae - Caricetea sylvaticae within the phytosociological classification system (Association Tela Botanica 2000).

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Associations

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / parasite
cleistothecium of Golovinomyces cynoglossi parasitises live Pulmonaria officinalis

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pulmonaria officinalis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pulmonaria officinalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Chadburn, H.

Reviewer/s
Allen, D.J.

Contributor/s

Justification
The species is considered endemic to Europe, where it is found in most parts of the region. The extent of occurrence (EOO) for this species greatly exceeds the values needed for a threatened category. It occurs in a variety of habitats over a range of altitudes and the area of occupancy (AOO) is also inferred to exceed these values. The population is large and threats are suspected to have minimal impacts on the overall population at present. It is assessed as Least Concern in Europe and the EU27.
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National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Population

Population
The species is widespread in Europe. It occurs in more than twenty countries and there are more than seven thousand records for this species in the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF 2013).

The population is known to be large, for example, in 2012, four large populations of more than 1,000 individuals were sampled in two different parts of the distribution range. Two of these populations, Hofeberg and Bertsdorf, were situated in eastern Germany, representing the core of the distribution area. Two populations, Kloosterbos and Waardebroeken, were sampled in western Belgium, which is located beyond the western edge of the main distribution range (Meeus et al. 2013).

It is not thought to have significant threats and the population is inferred to be stable.

Population Trend
Stable
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Threats

Major Threats
The species is subject to some local collection from the wild for medicinal use, for example, in the Ukraine (Minarchenko 2011) but it is though to have little impact on the overall population status. General loss of habitat with intensification of agriculture may have impacts in parts of the range, perhaps particularly at the edges of its range where it is less common, for example it is considered rare in Denmark and Endangered in the Netherlands (U. Schippmann pers com. 2013).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species is grown in many botanic gardens (BCGI 2013) and seeds are listed as being stored in Pavia, Italy (ENSCO 2014). It is found within Natura 2000 sites including Lauter und Eisenbach in Germany, Las Baniewicki in Poland and Jungfruvassen in Sweden (EUNIS 2010).
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Wikipedia

Pulmonaria officinalis

Pulmonaria officinalis, common names lungwort, common lungwort or Our Lady's milk drops, is a herbaceous evergreen perennial rhizomatous plant of the genus Pulmonaria, belonging to the family Boraginaceae

Etymology[edit]

The genus name comes from the Latin Pulmoa meaning lung and was first used by Leonhart Fuchs (1501 – 1566), a German physician and one of the three founding fathers of botany. The species has been named officinalis by Carl Linnaeus for the medical properties of these plants, used since the Middle Ages to treat coughs and diseases of the chest, perhaps for its hard hairiness (expectorant effect).

Description[edit]

Botanical sketch of Pulmonaria officinalis showing seeds, from Flora von Deutschland, Österreich und der Schweiz 1885 Thomé
Close-up on flowers of Pulmonaria officinalis

The basal leaves are green, cordate, more or less elongated and pointed and always with rounded and often sharply defined white or pale green patches. The upper surface of the leaves has tiny bumps and it is quite hairy. The leaves of this host plant are eaten by the caterpillars of the moth Ethmia pusiella. In spring, the plant produces small bunches of flowers. The 5-petals flowers are red or pink at first, later turn to blue-purple during the anthesis, by changing the pH value inside of the petals. As a matter of fact the flowers contain a dye that belongs to the anthocyanins and change the color from red (acidic) to blue (alkaline). Pulmonaria officinalis is diploid and has the chromosome number 2n = 14. Flowering period extends from March through May and the seeds ripen from May to June. Pollination is granted by insects (entomophily) - mainly bees, bumblebees and butterflies - the spread of seeds over ants.

Medicinal uses[edit]

The plant has been cultivated for centuries as a medicinal herb, the ovate spotted leaves held to be representative of diseased lungs, following the Doctrine of Signatures. In fact it is useful in the treatment of chest diseases and asthma.

Distribution[edit]

This native species is perhaps the most widespread plant in Europe. It is distributed west in the Ardennes up to the Netherlands, Denmark and central Sweden. It is missing in Norway and it is only naturalized in the British Isles. It reaches central Russia and the Caucasus and it occurs in the Balkans and in northern to central Italy.

Habitat[edit]

It grows in deciduous and beech mixed forests from the lowlands to the mountains. It prefers fresh and shady areas, nutrient-rich and mostly calcareous, stony or pure clay loam soils, at an altitude of 0–1,500 metres (0–4,921 ft) above sea level.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  • "Pulmonaria officinalis". Royal Horticultural Society. Retrieved 2006-05-01. [dead link]
  • Pignatti S. - Flora d'Italia – Edagricole – 1982, Vol. II, pag. 407
  • Tutin, T.G. et al. - Flora Europaea, second edition - 1993
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