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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

Annual herb, to 1 m; branches bearing 3-partite yellow spines.   Leaves petiolate, narrowly ovate, discolorous; margin undulate, toothed or, commonly, 3-lobed; base cuneate. Male capitula spherical, terminal. Female capitulum with phyllaries connate around the 2 achenes. Fruit 1-1.2 cm bearing numerous spines with hooked tips.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Derivation of specific name

spinosum: spiny
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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Distribution

Distribution in Egypt

Nile Valley North of Nubia (Delta), Mareotic Sector, North Sinai.

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© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Global Distribution

Cosmopolitan.

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© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Acanthoxanthium spinosum (L.) Fourr.:
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Xanthium catharticum Kunth:
Argentina (South America)
Chile (South America)
Colombia (South America)
Ecuador (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Xanthium spinosum L.:
Argentina (South America)
Bolivia (South America)
Brazil (South America)
Canada (North America)
Chile (South America)
Ecuador (South America)
United States (North America)
South Africa (Africa & Madagascar)
Colombia (South America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Worldwide distribution

Widespread as a weed in both the Old and New Worlds.
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© Mark Hyde, Bart Wursten and Petra Ballings

Source: Flora of Zimbabwe

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants 10–60(–120+) cm; nodal spines usually in pairs, simple or 2–3-partite, 15–30+ mm. Leaves: petioles 1–15(–25+) mm; blades ± ovate to lanceolate or lance-linear, 4–8(–12+) × 1–3(–5+) cm, often pinnately 3(–7+)-lobed, abaxial faces gray to white, densely strigose. Burs 10–12(–15+) mm. 2n = 36.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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Ecology

Habitat

Weed of waste ground, roadsides, edges of cultivation.

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© Bibliotheca Alexandrina

Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Associations

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Acanthiophilus helianthi feeds within capitulum of Xanthium spinosum

Foodplant / parasite
Podosphaera fusca parasitises live Xanthium spinosum

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Annual.

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Source: Bibliotheca Alexandrina - EOL Ar

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Xanthium spinosum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Xanthium spinosum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Source: NatureServe

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Management

These species are introduced in Switzerland.
  • Aeschimann, D. & C. Heitz. 2005. Synonymie-Index der Schweizer Flora und der angrenzenden Gebiete (SISF). 2te Auflage. Documenta Floristicae Helvetiae N° 2. Genève.   http://www.crsf.ch/ External link.
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© Info Flora (CRSF/ZDSF) & Autoren 2005

Supplier: Name It's Source (profile not public)

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Wikipedia

Xanthium spinosum

Xanthium spinosum is a species of flowering plant in the aster family known by many common names, including spiny cocklebur, prickly burweed and Bathurst burr.[1] It is known worldwide as a noxious weed that grows in many types of disturbed habitat. Its original native range is not known but it may have come from South America,[2] possibly from Chile.[3] This is an annual herb producing a slender stem up to a meter tall or slightly taller. It is lined at intervals with very long, sharp, yellowish spines which may exceed three centimeters in length and may divide into two or three separate spines. The leaves are divided into linear or lance-shaped lobes, the middle much longer than the others, and are arranged alternately all along the stem. Each is up to 10 or 12 centimeters long and dark green or grayish on top with a white underside. The plant produces male and female flower heads, the female heads developing into burs one or 1.5 centimeters long and covered in thin spines. The spiny burs are easily dispersed to new areas when they become attached to animals, people, and objects, or float on water. Bur damage to sheep's wool reduces its value.[3] The plants, especially new seedlings, are toxic to livestock.[3]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Bathurst Burr". Department of Primary Industries. Retrieved 22 April 2012. 
  2. ^ Flora of North America
  3. ^ a b c Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board
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Notes

Comments

Some authors have contended that Xanthium spinosum originated in South America and is introduced and/or naturalized everywhere else that it is found.
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© Missouri Botanical Garden, 4344 Shaw Boulevard, St. Louis, MO, 63110 USA

Source: Missouri Botanical Garden

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