The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • A.Gray. 1876. In: Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 11: 90.
  • Anonymous. 1986. List-Based Rec., Soil Conserv. Serv., U.S.D.A. Database of the U.S.D.A., Beltsville.
  • CONABIO. 2009. Catálogo taxonómico de especies de México. 1. In Capital Nat. México. CONABIO, Mexico City.
  • Hickman, J. C. 1993. The Jepson Manual: Higher Plants of California 1–1400. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Isosyntype: Gray, A. 1876. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 11: 90.
  • Kearney, T. H. & R. Peebles. 1951. Arizona Fl.
  • Knapp S., Walley L., Bohs L., Nee M. & Spooner D. (eds) (2015). Solanaceae Source (version 200811, Nov 2008). In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life, 26th August 2015 (Roskov Y., Abucay L., Orrell T., Nicolson D., Kunze T., Flann C., Bailly N., Kirk P., Bourgoin T., DeWalt R.E., Decock W., De Wever A., eds). Digital resource at Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. ISSN 2405-8858.
  • Leaflets of Western Botany 1(10): 104. 1934. (Leafl. W. Bot.)
  • Lehr, J. H. 1978. Cat. Fl. Arizona
  • Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. Cal. Fl. 1–1681. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Munz, P. A. 1974. Fl. S. Calif. 1–1086. University of California Press, Berkeley.
  • Possible syntype: Gray, A. 1876. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 11: 90.
  • Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 11: 90–91. 1876. (Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts)
  • Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, Series 3, 2(5): 165. 1901. (Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 3,)
  • Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis 13(1): 85. 1852. (Prodr.)
  • Shreve, F. & I. L. Wiggins. 1964. Veg. Fl. Sonoran Des. 2 vols. Stanford University Press, Stanford.
  • Type collection: Eastwood, A. 1934. Leafl. W. Bot. 1: 104.


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