Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Mexico

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: The species is known only from San Diego County and scattered herbarium specimens from Baja California.

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: USA, s CA, Santa Barbara (Gaviota Pass) & San Diego (Warner's Ranch) Cos.

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Physical Description

Type Information

Type collection for Solanum obispoense Eastw.
Catalog Number: US 15651755
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Status verified from secondary sources
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): M. Wall
Year Collected: 1933
Locality: Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo Co., El Dorado School., San Luis Obispo, California, United States, North America
  • Type collection: Eastwood, A. 1934. Leafl. W. Bot. 1: 104.
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Possible syntype for Solanum xanti A. Gray
Catalog Number: US 22497
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): J. Lemmon
Year Collected: 1875
Locality: Sierra Nev. Mts., California, United States, North America
  • Possible syntype: Gray, A. 1876. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 11: 90.
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Possible syntype for Solanum xanti A. Gray
Catalog Number: US 2606936
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): E. L. Greene
Year Collected: 1876
Locality: Near Yreka, Siskiyou Co., Siskiyou, California, United States, North America
  • Possible syntype: Gray, A. 1876. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 11: 90.
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Type collection for Solanum xanti var. intermedium Parish
Catalog Number: US 313423
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): S. B. Parish
Year Collected: 1897
Locality: Vicinity of San Bernardino., San Bernardino, California, United States, North America
Elevation (m): 305 to 762
  • Type collection: Parish, S. B. 1901. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. ser. 3. 2: 168.
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Isosyntype for Solanum xanti A. Gray
Catalog Number: US 22492
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): L. Xantus de Vesey
Year Collected: 1857
Locality: Vicinity of Fort Tejon., California, United States, North America
  • Isosyntype: Gray, A. 1876. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts. 11: 90.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Chaparral.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 6 - 80

Comments: Several sites in San Diego County are known, but are not tracked by CAHP because of CAHP belief in the synonymy of this taxon with the common S. xanti. Reiser (1994) reports populations from several sites including: Otay Mountain (scattered individuals), Donohoe Mountain (100's of individuals), Otay Mesa (Montana Serena Truck Trail, Crest), and the Jamul Mountains (100's of individuals).

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Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 1 - 5

Comments: 2 locations cited by Munz; many colls. of S. xantii at US but few annotated to var.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Mexico

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Occurs in California and Baja California, Mexico. The California Native Plant Society and the new Jepson Manual consider it synonymous with Solanum xanti, a common taxon, but it is recognized as distinct by Munz (1968) and by Kartesz (1999).

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T4 - Apparently Secure

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1 - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T1 - Critically Imperiled

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: T3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Limited distribution.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: TNR - Not Yet Ranked

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Global Short Term Trend: Decline of 10-30%

Comments: Residential development is decreasing the area of occurrence and amount of available habitat.

Global Long Term Trend: Relatively stable to decline of 50%

Comments: Residential development is decreasing the area of occurrence and amount of available habitat.

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Threats

Degree of Threat: High

Comments: Habitat loss/degradation is the primary threat to this taxon. Known from San Diego County, California and Baja California, MX, the taxon is protected (in part) by the San Diego County Multiple Species Conservation Plan. However proposed amendments (2003) would allow a broader impact to the taxon's habitat. The species tends to occur in small scattered populations, although some populations are believed to have several hundred individuals, therefore fragmentation could play a role in population decline. There is much confusion over the taxonomy of this taxon, CNPS, the Jepson Manual and CAHP all consider this taxon to be indistinct from the much more common Solanum xanti, and therefore do not monitor or track.

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Wikipedia

Solanum xanti

Solanum xanti, known commonly as chaparral nightshade, purple nightshade, and San Diego nightshade, is a member of the genus Solanum. It is native to the Western United States in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Oregon, and to Northwest Mexico in Baja California. [1]

The plant grows in chaparral, oak woodlands, conifer forests, desert Madrean Sky Islands, and other habitats. [2]

Description[edit]

Solanum xanti is a perennial herb or subshrub producing a branching hairy stem up to about 90 centimetres (35 in) in maximum height. The leaves are up to 7 centimeters long and are lance-shaped to oval, mostly unlobed except for occasional lobes at the bases of the blades.

It flowers from February to June in the wild, bearing an umbel-shaped inflorescence with many purple-blue flowers up to 3 centimeters wide. The fruit is a green berry 1 to 1.5 centimeters wide. [1]

Varieties[edit]

Varieties of the species include:

Cultivation[edit]

The plant is cultivated as an ornamental plant by specialty plant nurseries for planting in perennial border, drought-tolerant and native plant gardens. It grows from sunny locations to dry shade, such as under native oaks. [9] [10] [11]

The plant is deer resistant, due to its poisonous qualities.

Selections

Cultivars and varieties available include:

  • Solanum xanti var. hoffmannii — Hoffmann's Nightshade (long bloom period) [12]
  • Solanum xanti 'Mountain Pride' — Mountain Pride purple nightshade (large dark purple flowers) [13]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Considered distinct by Munz (1968) and Kartesz (1994, 1999), but included in the widespread species Solanum xanti by CNPS (1997 database) and by Hickman (1993).

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Comments: Munz (1959) thought this taxon to be "very close to S. parishii"; in a large genus of c. 1400 spp., predominantly Am. L. Heckardt was working with S. xanti & its vars.

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Comments: Not mentioned The Jepson Manual, 2nd edition (Baldwin 2012); possibly synonymized according to the Jepson Interchange (online, May 2012).

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Comments: Name spelled 'xanti' by Kartesz (1999); has also been spelled 'xantii' (e.g., by Kartesz, 1994).

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