State - Kerala, District/s: Alappuzha, Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam, Kollam, Kottayam, Thrissur, Malappuram, Kozhikkode, Kannur, Kasaragode"
Distribution in Egypt
Res Sea coastal strip.
Red Sea, Indian ocean shores.
Madagascar Mangroves Habitat
The endangered Malagasy sacred ibis (Threskiornis bernieri), is found in the Madagascar mangroves ecoregion as well as certain other western coastal Madagascar habitat and the Seychelles. These Madagascar mangroves shelter highly diverse mollusk and crustacean communities, while capturing sediment that threatens coral reefs and seagrass beds. Although up to nine mangrove tree species have been recorded, most of the Madagascar mangrove stands contain six species in four families: Rhizophoracae (Rhizopora mucronata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Ceriops tagal), Avicenniaceae (Avicennia marina), Sonneratiaceae (Sonneratia alba) and Combretaceae (Lumnitzera racemosa).
Some ot the other notable avian associates of the Madagascar mangroves are: the Madagascar Heron (Ardea humbloti, VU), Madagascar Teal (Anas bernieri, EN), Madagascar plover (Charadrius thoracicus, VU), and Madagascar fish eagle (Haliaeetus vociferoides, CR). The Malagasy kingfisher (Alcedo vintsioides) is also thought to occur in these mangroves. This habitat is important for migratory bird species, such as Common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), Crab plover (Dromas ardeola), Gray plover (Charadrius squatarola), African spoonbill (Platalea alba) and Great White Egret (Egretta alba).
A number of mammalian taxa are found in the ecoregion, chiefly lemurs, tenrecs and bats. The sole terrestrial apex mammalian predator of the ecoregion is the Malagasy civet (Fossa fossana), a Madagascar endemic.
Tenrecs occurring in the ecoregion are: Large-eared tenrec (Geogale aurita), the tiniest extant tenrec; Greater hedgehog tenrec found in the Madagascar mangroves, an insectivorous mammal; Lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi); and Tailless tenrec (Tenrec ecaudatus). Each of these tenrecs is endemic to Madagascar, save for the Tailless tenrec, which is also found on Comoros and a few other islands in the region.
Primates found in the Madagascar consist of several lemur species: the Endangered Verreaux's sifaka (Propithecus verreauxi), endemic to western and southwestern Madagascar; the Vulnerable Black lemur (Eulemur macaco); the Vulnerable Red-fronted lemur (Eulemur rufus); the Vulnerable Sambirano Bamboo Lemur (Hapalemur occidentalis); the Endangered Coquerel's Mouse-lemur (Microcebus coquereli), a Madagascar endemic; the Vulnerable Decken's sifaka (Propithecus deckenii), a western Madagascar endemic; Sambirano Woolly Lemur (Avahi unicolor), a northwestern Madagascar endemic; Pale-forked crown lemur (Phaner pallescens), endemic to western Madagascar; Fat-tailed dwarf lemur (Cheirogaleus medius); and Grey mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus).
Bats occurring here are the Near Threatened Malagasy rousette (Rousettus madagascariensis), a cave rooster capable of navigating the airspace of rather dense intact forest; Vulnerable Madagascan fruit bat (Eidolon dupreanum); Near Threatened Commerson's roundleaf bat (Hipposideros commersonii); Near threatened long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersi); Rufous trident bat (Triaenops rufus); Malagasy giant mastiff bat (Otomops madagascariensis), a Madagascar endemic; Malagasy White-bellied Free-tailed Bat (Mops leucostigma), endemic to Madagascar and the Comoros islands of Anjouan and Moheli; Malagasy slit-faced bat (Nycteris madagascariensis), a narrow endemic to the Irodo River Valley in northern Madagascar; Mauritian tomb bat (Taphozous mauritianus); Trouessart's trident bat (Triaenops furculus), endemic to Madagascar and the outer Seychelles atolls; Manavi Long-fingered Bat (Miniopterus manavi), endemic to Madagascar and Comoros; Grandidier's Free-tailed Bat (Chaerephon leucogaster); Robust yellow bat (Scotophilus robustus); Malagasy mouse-eared bat (Suncus madagascariensis); and Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka). Flying foxes found in the ecoregion are: Madagascan flying fox (Pteropus rufus), an important seed disperser who mates whilst hanging upside down.
Other mammals found in the ecoregion are the Madagascan pygmy shrew (Suncus madagascariensis); The only Rodentia member in the ecoregion is the Dormouse tufted-tailed rat (Eliurus myoxinus).
There are a limited number of reptilian taxa found in the Madagascar mangroves: Snake-eyed skink (Cryptoblepharus boutonii); and aquatic apex predator Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). Some sea turtles, primarily green turtle (Chelonia mydas, EN) and Hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata, CR), nest along the western coast within the Madagascar mangroves. The declining species Dugong (Dugong dugong, VU) is also found in the mangroves.
There is only one amphibian species present in the Madagascar mangroves: Mascarene ridged frog (Ptychadena mascareniensis).
There is particularly high diversity among the fish populations in the Madagascar mangroves,the families of which include: Mugelidae, Serranidae, Carangidae, Gerridae, Hemiramphidae, Plectrorhynchidae and Elopidae. The neighboring coral reefs that are associated with the mangroves have also been noted for extremely high fish diversity.
- C.MIchael Hogan & World Wildlife Fund. 2015. Madagascar mangroves. Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and Environment. Washington DC
- Hughes, R.H. & Hughes, J.S. 1992. A Directory of African Wetlands. UUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge UK/UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya/WCMC, Cambridge, UK. ISBN: 2880329493
Habitat and Ecology
In the eastern portion of its range, this species tends to grow closer to freshwater influences while in the western portion of its range it tends to grow closer to the seaward side. More genetic work is needed to determine if this may represent different species.
Habitat & Distribution
Life History and Behavior
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Rhizophora mucronata
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rhizophora mucronata
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.
In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
Rhizophora mucronata (loop-root mangrove, red mangrove or Asiatic mangrove Afrikaans: rooiwortelboom, Xhosa: isikhangathi, Zulu: umhlume) is a species of mangrove found on coasts and river banks in the Indo-Pacific region.
Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. The tallest trees are closest to the water and shorter trees are further inland. The tree has a large number of aerial stilt roots buttressing the trunk. The leaves are elliptical and usually about 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long and 6 centimetres (2.4 in) wide. They have elongated tips but these often break off. There are corky warts on the pale undersides of the leaves. The flowers develop in axillary clusters on the twigs. Each has a hard cream-coloured calyx with four sepals and four white, hairy petals. The seeds are viviparous and start to develop whilst still attached to the tree. The root begins to elongate and may reach a length of a metre (yard) or more. The propagule then becomes detached from the branch when sufficiently well developed to root in the mud below.
Distribution and habitat
Rhizophora mucronata is found in the Indo-Pacific region on the banks of rivers and on the edge of the sea. It is the only mangrove species to be found in East Africa. R. mucronata is native to Africa (in southeastern Egypt; eastern Ethiopia; eastern Kenya; Madagascar; Mauritius; Mozambique; the Seychelles; Somalia; eastern side of South Africa down to Nahoon the southern most mangrove forest in Africa; southeastern Sudan; and eastern Tanzania); Asia (in Burma; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; the Ryukyu Islands of Japan; Malaysia; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; the Philippines; Sri Lanka; Taiwan; Thailand; and Vietnam) the South Pacific (in the Solomon Islands; and Vanuatu) and Australia (in northern Northern Territory; and northern Queensland).
The natural habitat of Rhizophora mucronata is estuaries, tidal creeks and flat coastal areas subject to daily tidal flooding. It seems to be more tolerant of inundation than other mangrove species and often forms an evergreen fringe to mangrove areas. It sometimes occurs as a pure stand or may grow with Rhizophora apiculata. The red mangrove is a protected tree in South Africa.
Rhizophora mucronata regenerates easily from seed but the seedlings are often damaged by crabs. The leaves are also eaten by crabs  and form part of the diet of the crab-eating macaque (Macaca irus). The tree is attacked by the beetle Poecilus fallax. In the Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary near Cochin, India, it grows in association with the mangrove Avicennia officinalis, the golden leather fern (Acrostichum aureum) and the sea holly (Acanthus ilicifolius).
Rhizophora mucronata has multiple uses. It is used to help prevent coastal erosion and in restoration of mangrove habitats. The timber is used for firewood and in the construction of buildings, as poles and pilings, and in making fish traps. The fruits can be cooked and eaten or the juice extracted to make wine, and the young shoots can be consumed as a vegetable. The bark is used in tanning and a dye can be extracted from both bark and leaves. Various parts of the plant are used in folk medicine.
- Duke, N.; Kathiresan, K.; Salmo III, S.G.; Fernando, E.S.; Peras, J.R.; Sukardjo, S.; Miyagi, T. (2010). "Rhizophora mucronata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- GRIN (March 1, 2006). "Rhizophora mucronata information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
- "Protected Trees". Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa. 15 June 2013.
- Duke, James A. (1983). "Rhizophora mucronata Lam.". Handbook of Energy Crops. Retrieved 2012-10-08.
- Gillikin, David; Verheyden, Anouk (2005). "Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. 1804". A field guide to Kenyan mangroves. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
- "Rhizophora mucronata". AgroForestryTree Database. World Agroforestry Centre. Retrieved 2012-10-07.
- Wildlife Holidays India. "Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary". Retrieved 2012-10-08.