Overview

Comprehensive Description

Miscellaneous Details

Notes: Tidal Mangrove forests
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Brief

Flowering class: Dicot Habit: Shrub to Small Tree
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is very widespread. The South Asian range includes Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Taiwan, Japan, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and southern Viet Nam. The Australasian range includes Northeast Australia, Federated States of Micronesia, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. In East Africa and the Middle East it is present in Egypt, Eritrea, Iran, Kenya, Madagascar, Maldives, Mauritius, Mozambique, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Somalia, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Yemen, Oman, and United Arab Emirates. There are historical records from the Arabian Sea, although it has long been extirpated.
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"Maharashtra: Raigad, Ratnagiri, Satara, Sindhudurg, Thane"
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Global Distribution

Paleotropics

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: Alappuzha, Thiruvananthapuram, Ernakulam, Kollam, Kottayam, Thrissur, Malappuram, Kozhikkode, Kannur, Kasaragode

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Distribution in Egypt

Res Sea coastal strip.

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Global Distribution

Red Sea, Indian ocean shores.

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Distribution: N. Australia, Malaysia, Fiji, Near Caledonia, New Hebrides, Indo-Pakistan subcontinent, E. & S. Africa and Micronesia.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

A much branched large shrub or moderate sized tree, up to 10 m tall, supported on adventitious prop roots from stem and branches with reddish brown bark. Leaves with 1-3 cm long, stout petiole; lamina broadly elliptic or oblong-elliptic to oval, (6-) 8-15 (-20) cm long. (3.5-) 4-8 (-10) cm broad, cuneate at the base, entire, apical mucro 5-9 mm long, upper surface bright green but lower with minute, reddish-black lenticular dots, glabrous; stipules 4-6 cm long, minutely rugulose, acute. Peduncles 4-many-flowered, usually longer than the petioles, borne in axils of leaves of same year, 4-6 cm long, bearing 2-3 flowered cymes. Flowers on 4-8 mm long, rugulose, upwardly thickened pedicels; bracteoles orbiculate, 1.5-2.5 mm long, apically truncate. Calyx tube 2-3 mm long, lobes pale-yellow, narrowly ovate, lanceolate, 10-15 mm long, keeled. Petals yellowish-white, oblong, nearly as long as calyx lobes or slightly shorter, densely villose on margins, sparsely hairy on back and within. Stamens almost sessile, anthers 6-8 mm long, apiculate. Ovary ovoid with free conical portion protruding beyond disc; style inconspicuous, stigma 2-lobed. Fruit ovoid, 4-5 cm long, 2-3.5 cm in diameter, dull brown-green. Hypocotyle rugose, 20-40 cm long, 1.5-2 cm broad.
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Description

Trees, to 27(-30) m, d.b.h. to 70 cm. Stipules 5.5-8.5 cm. Petiole 2.5-4 cm; leaf blade broadly elliptic to oblong, 8.5-16 × 5-10 cm, base cuneate, apex ± blunt to ± acute. Inflorescences 2-4(-8)-flowered cymes; peduncle 2-5 cm. Flowers sessile. Calyx lobes ovate, 9-14 × 5-7 mm. Petals lanceolate, 7-9 mm, fleshy, partly embracing stamens, margins pilose. Stamens 8, 4 borne on base of petals, 4 borne on sepals, 6-8 mm; anthers sessile. Ovary emerging far beyond disk, free part elongate-conic, 2-3 mm; style 0.5-1.5 mm. Fruit dirty brownish green, elongate-ovoid, 5-7 × 2.5-3.5 cm, basally often tuberculate, apically slightly contracted. Hypocotyl cylindric, 30-60 cm. 2n = 36.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Evergreen trees, to 6 m high; branches horizontal; trunk and lower branches supported by numerous profusely looping stilt-roots and prop roots, lenticellate, bark brown, longitudinally fissured; branchlets, terete, brownish-green, glabrous, with prominent, rough, thick, brown layer of stipular scar, prominent. Leaves simple, opposite decussate, stipulate, clustered at the shoot apex; stipules 2, interpetiolar, 6 x 1.2 cm, pale green with pinkish tinge, overlapping the apical bud, subcylindric; petiole 25-35 mm long, stout, glabrous, grooved above, pale green; lamina 12.5-14.5 x 5.5-8.5 cm, elliptic-ovate, base cuneate, apex mucronate, glabrous, coriaceous, green above, pale green beneath with numerous black dots; lateral veins 8-9 pairs, pinnate, slender, inconspicuous, secondary laterals also present, intercostae reticulate. Flowers bisexual, yellowish-white, 2.5 x 1.5 cm, in axillary dichotomously or trichotomously branched or unbranched 2-4 flowered cymes; peduncle 3-5 cm long, terete, glabrous, pendulous; bracts small, cupular; pedicel 5 mm long; bracteole 2, connate to form a dilated cupular part enclosing the base of the calyx tube; calyx yellowish-white, calyx tube smooth, enclosing the base of the pistil, lobes 4, 1.2 x 0.6 cm, ovate, acute, thick, fleshy, glabrous; petals 4, 1 x 0.2 cm, white, lanceolate, densely hairy along the margins, hairs white, uniseriate; stamens 8, free, inserted on the margin of the receptacular disc; filaments 2 mm long, terete, anthers basifixed, multilocellate; pistil conoid; ovary half inferior, inserted within and fused with the calyx cup, ovules 2 in each cell, pendulous; style short; stigma bifid. Fruit a drupe, 5-7 cm long, ovoid or conoid, pericarp brown, thick, leathery, glabrous, calyx lobes reflexed, brown; seed one, hypocotyl 50 x 1.8 cm, cylindric, slightly curved, tapering towards the radicle end, surface rough warty, green; cotyledonary collar protruded and exposed on maturity."
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Diagnostic

Habit: Tree
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Synonym

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is found in the intermediate to upstream estuarine zone in the lower to mid-intertidal region, and more to the seaward side. This species tolerates a maximum salinity of 40 ppt and a salinity of optimal growth of 8-33 ppt. (Robertson and Alongi 1992). This is a hardy species that is easily propagated and is fast-growing. It can grow up to 35 m, and can grow to 6 m high within seven years on plantations (Sukardjo and Yamada 1992).

In the eastern portion of its range, this species tends to grow closer to freshwater influences while in the western portion of its range it tends to grow closer to the seaward side. More genetic work is needed to determine if this may represent different species.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Marine
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General Habitat

Mangrove swamps
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Habitat & Distribution

Mangrove forests; sea level. Taiwan [Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Japan (Ryukyu Islands), Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; E Africa, SW Asia, N Australia, Indian Ocean islands, New Guinea, Madagascar, Pacific islands].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: April-October
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Flower/Fruit

Fl.Per.: July-October
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Rhizophora mucronata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Rhizophora mucronata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 5
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Duke, N., Kathiresan, K., Salmo III, S.G., Fernando, E.S., Peras, J.R., Sukardjo, S. & Miyagi, T.

Reviewer/s
Polidoro, B.A., Livingstone, S.R. & Carpenter, K.E. (Global Marine Species Assessment Coordinating Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread and common within its range, and is the preferred species for mangrove restoration. Mangrove species are more at risk from coastal development and extraction at the extremes of their distribution, and are likely to be contracting in these areas more than in other areas. It is also likely that changes in climate due to global warming will further affect these parts of the range. There has been an estimated 20% decline in mangrove areas within it range due to habitat loss or extraction, but not enough to reach any of the threatened category thresholds. This species is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This species is common in many parts of its range. For example, in India, this species was found in 45% of 100 sampling sites (Kathiresan 2008). This species is similar in morphology and genetics to R. stylosa, and only differs by the length of the style.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
In South Andaman, 30-80% of Rhizophora spp. died due to continuous inundation after the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami in December 2004 (Roy and Krishnan 2005). Although local estimates are uncertain due to differing legislative definitions of what is a 'mangrove' and to the imprecision in determining mangrove area, current consensus estimates of mangrove loss in the last quarter-century report an approximately 20% decline in mangrove areas in countries within this species range since 1980 (FAO 2007).

All mangrove ecosystems occur within mean sea level and high tidal elevations, and have distinct species zonations that are controlled by the elevation of the substrate relative to mean sea level. This is because of associated variation in frequency of elevation, salinity and wave action (Duke et al. 1998). With rise in sea-level, the habitat requirements of each species will be disrupted, and species zones will suffer mortality at their present locations and re-establish at higher elevations in areas that were previously landward zones (Ellison 2005). If sea-level rise is a continued trend over this century, then there will be continued mortality and re-establishment of species zones. However, species that are easily dispersed and fast growing/fast producing will cope better than those which are slower growing and slower to reproduce.

In addition, mangrove area is declining globally due to a number of localized threats. The main threat is habitat destruction and removal of mangrove areas. Reasons for removal include cleared for shrimp farms, agriculture, fish ponds, rice production and salt pans, and for the development of urban and industrial areas, road construction, coconut plantations, ports, airports, and tourist resorts. Other threats include pollution from sewage effluents, solid wastes, siltation, oil, and agricultural and urban runoff. Climate change is also thought to be a threat, particularly at the edges of a species range. Natural threats include cyclones, hurricane and tsunamis.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures specific to this species, but its range may include some marine and coastal protected areas. Continued monitoring and research is recommended, as well as the inclusion of mangrove areas in marine and coastal protected areas. This species is the most preferred species for mangrove restoration.
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Wikipedia

Rhizophora mucronata

Rhizophora mucronata (loop-root mangrove, red mangrove or Asiatic mangrove Afrikaans: rooiwortelboom, Xhosa: isikhangathi, Zulu: umhlume)[2][3][4] is a species of mangrove found on coasts and river banks in the Indo-Pacific region.

Description[edit]

Rhizophora mucronata is a small to medium size evergreen tree growing to a height of about 20 to 25 metres (66 to 82 ft) on the banks of rivers. On the fringes of the sea 10 or 15 metres (33 or 49 ft) is a more typical height. The tallest trees are closest to the water and shorter trees are further inland. The tree has a large number of aerial stilt roots buttressing the trunk. The leaves are elliptical and usually about 12 centimetres (4.7 in) long and 6 centimetres (2.4 in) wide. They have elongated tips but these often break off. There are corky warts on the pale undersides of the leaves. The flowers develop in axillary clusters on the twigs. Each has a hard cream-coloured calyx with four sepals and four white, hairy petals. The seeds are viviparous and start to develop whilst still attached to the tree.[5] The root begins to elongate and may reach a length of a metre (yard) or more. The propagule then becomes detached from the branch when sufficiently well developed to root in the mud below.[6]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Rhizophora mucronata is found in the Indo-Pacific region on the banks of rivers and on the edge of the sea. It is the only mangrove species to be found in East Africa.[5] R. mucronata is native to Africa (in southeastern Egypt; eastern Ethiopia; eastern Kenya; Madagascar; Mauritius; Mozambique; the Seychelles; Somalia; eastern side of South Africa down to Nahoon the southern most mangrove forest in Africa; southeastern Sudan; and eastern Tanzania); Asia (in Burma; Cambodia; India; Indonesia; the Ryukyu Islands of Japan; Malaysia; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; the Philippines; Sri Lanka; Taiwan; Thailand; and Vietnam) the South Pacific (in the Solomon Islands; and Vanuatu) and Australia (in northern Northern Territory; and northern Queensland).[2]

The natural habitat of Rhizophora mucronata is estuaries, tidal creeks and flat coastal areas subject to daily tidal flooding. It seems to be more tolerant of inundation than other mangrove species and often forms an evergreen fringe to mangrove areas. It sometimes occurs as a pure stand or may grow with Rhizophora apiculata.[6] The red mangrove is a protected tree in South Africa.[3]

Ecology[edit]

Rhizophora mucronata regenerates easily from seed but the seedlings are often damaged by crabs.[4] The leaves are also eaten by crabs [5] and form part of the diet of the crab-eating macaque (Macaca irus). The tree is attacked by the beetle Poecilus fallax.[4] In the Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary near Cochin, India, it grows in association with the mangrove Avicennia officinalis, the golden leather fern (Acrostichum aureum) and the sea holly (Acanthus ilicifolius).[7]

Uses[edit]

Rhizophora mucronata has multiple uses. It is used to help prevent coastal erosion and in restoration of mangrove habitats.[1] The timber is used for firewood and in the construction of buildings, as poles and pilings, and in making fish traps. The fruits can be cooked and eaten or the juice extracted to make wine, and the young shoots can be consumed as a vegetable. The bark is used in tanning and a dye can be extracted from both bark and leaves. Various parts of the plant are used in folk medicine.[4]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Duke, N.; Kathiresan, K.; Salmo III, S.G.; Fernando, E.S.; Peras, J.R.; Sukardjo, S.; Miyagi, T. (2010). "Rhizophora mucronata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  2. ^ a b c GRIN (March 1, 2006). "Rhizophora mucronata information from NPGS/GRIN". Taxonomy for Plants. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland: USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Retrieved October 7, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b "Protected Trees". Department of Water Affairs and Forestry, Republic of South Africa. 15 June 2013. 
  4. ^ a b c d Duke, James A. (1983). "Rhizophora mucronata Lam.". Handbook of Energy Crops. Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
  5. ^ a b c Gillikin, David; Verheyden, Anouk (2005). "Rhizophora mucronata Lamk. 1804". A field guide to Kenyan mangroves. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  6. ^ a b "Rhizophora mucronata". AgroForestryTree Database. World Agroforestry Centre. Retrieved 2012-10-07. 
  7. ^ Wildlife Holidays India. "Mangalavanam Bird Sanctuary". Retrieved 2012-10-08. 
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Notes

Comments

The fruit is said to be eaten and its juice is fermented. The bark is used for tanning leather. The wood is used as fuel.
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