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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Comments

This is a classic example of a daisy. There are many white daisies that have been introduced from Eurasia as ornamental and herbal plants, although the Ox-Eye Daisy has larger flowerheads (more than 1¼" across). The various cultivars of Leucanthemum x superbum (Shasta Daisy) can closely resemble Ox-Eye Daisy in general appearance. The Shasta Daisy was developed by Luther Burbank from Eurasian species. Its flowerheads tend to be larger than those of the Oxeye Daisy (more than 2" across) and its leaves are less likely to be pinnatifid. In the Shasta Daisy, there is a brown membranous margin toward the apex of each floral bract, while the floral bracts of the Ox-Eye Daisy are brown along the entire length of their margins. Another scientific name for the Ox-Eye Daisy is Chrysanthemum leucanthemum.
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Description

This introduced perennial plant is 1-3' tall and little branched. The central stem is glabrous to slightly hairy and often angular or furrowed. A small tuft of basal leaves develops at the base of the plant, while alternate leaves occur sparingly along the central stem. These leaves are up to 5" long and ¾" across, becoming smaller as they ascend the stem. The basal and lower leaves are often oblanceolate with slender petioles, while the middle to upper leaves are more oblong and often clasp the stem. Their margins are coarsely dentate, and some of the alternate leaves are often pinnatifid toward the base. The upper and lower surface of each leaf is hairless (or nearly so). The central stem terminates in a single flowerhead on a long stalk that is nearly naked. This flowerhead spans about 1¼–2" across and has a typical daisy-like appearance. It consists of 15-35 white ray florets surrounding numerous tiny disk florets that are yellow. The receptacle of the disk florets is noticeably flattened. Each disk floret has 5 tiny lobes at its apex and is perfect, while each ray floret consists of a white oblong petal and is pistillate. At the base of the flowerhead, are several series of green floral bracts with margins that are brown and membranous. The blooming period occurs during early to mid-summer and lasts about 1½ months. Each floret is replaced by an oblongoid dark achene that has about 10 light ribs. The achenes are without tufts of hair. The root system is densely fibrous and forms offsets from short rhizomes. This plant often forms dense colonies where it is allowed to grow undisturbed.
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Distribution

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The Ox-Eye Daisy has naturalized in most counties of Illinois and is fairly common (see Distribution Map). It was introduced into the United States from Eurasia as an ornamental plant. Habitats include mesic to dry prairies (including old cemetery prairies), weedy meadows in wooded areas, vacant lots, areas along roads and railroads, landfills, pastures, and waste areas. This plant is usually found in degraded areas, but it also persists in higher quality habitats. The Ox-Eye Daisy is often grown in flower gardens, from which it may escape. Sometimes the rhizomes survive earth-moving operations, thereby establishing colonies of plants in new areas. Faunal Associations
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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European part of the FSU, the Caucasus (except Talysh), Siberia (except northern and eastern regions), northern Kazakstan, Western Europe, Mongolia and northwestern. China. In open woodlands, in meadows, on hillsides.
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A native of Europe, in Himalaya cultivated or escaped.
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Distribution: A native of Europe, distributed eastwards to Russia, Central Asia, China; introduced and naturalized in N America; cultivated in Indo-Pakistan subcontinent.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Perennial with up to 1 m tall, glabrous or ± hairy, simple or much branched shoots from ascending or horizontally creeping rhizome. Leaves, especially basal and median, long petioled, green-glaucous, obovate-spathulate to oblong-obovate, (1.5-) 2.5-10 (-15) cm long, basally cuneate, entire, crenate, obtusely toothed or deeply pinnatifid, upper stem leaves sessile. Capitula long-peduncled, radiate or discoid, (2-) 2.5-5 cm across, solitary or 2-6 (-10), in lax corymbs. Involucre saucer-shaped, 1-2 cm in diam., phyllaries ovate-oblong to lanceolate, 5-8 mm long, light to dark membranous margined, inner ones with wide apical appendage. Ray-florets, in radiate forms, 12-30, female, fertile, tube winged with 10-25 mm long, white ligules. Disc-florets and marginal florets in discoid capitula bisexual, yellow, 2.5-3 mm long, teeth deltoid, acute. Cypselas variable in size, 2-3 mm long, 10-ribbed. Pappus absent in disc-cypselas, present in ray-cypselas as unilateral, c. 0.3-0.5 mm long auricle.
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Description

Perennials, 10–30(–100+) cm. Stems simple or distally branched. Basal leaves: petioles 10–30(–120) mm, expanding into obovate to spatulate blades 12–35(–50+) × 8–20(–30) mm, margins usually pinnately lobed (lobes 3–7+) and/or irregularly toothed. Cauline leaves petiolate or sessile; blades oblanceolate or spatulate to lanceolate or linear, 30–80+ × 2–15+ mm, margins of mid-stem leaves usually irregularly toothed proximally and distally. Involucres 12–20+ mm diam. Phyllaries (the larger) 2–3 mm wide. Ray florets usually 13–34+, rarely 0; laminae 12–20(–35+) mm. Ray cypselae 1.5–2.5 mm, apices usually coronate or auriculate. 2n = 18, 36, 54, 72, 90.
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Description

Plant 15-80 cm. Rhizome short, horizontal. Stems leafy, erect, often unbranched. Basal leaves 10-15 cm, petiolate. Stem leaves sessile, toothed. Terminal flower heads 3-5 cm diam., with white rays and yellow disc. V - early spring to mid autumn. Fl - mid summer, in St Petersburg June-July. P - by seed, flowering the year after sowing. Self-sowing plant. Z 3.
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Elevation Range

2100 m
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 888. 1753; C. leucanthemum var. pinnatifidum Lecoq & Lamotte
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Synonym

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Sp. Pl. 888. 1753; Matricaria leucanthemum (L.) Desv. in Lam., Encycl. Method. 3: 731. 1792; Tanacetum leucanthemum (L.) Schultz-Bip., Tanacet. 35. 1844; Pyrethrum leucanemum (L.) Franch., Fl. Cher. Et Loir. 307. 1885.
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Ecology

Habitat

Range and Habitat in Illinois

The Ox-Eye Daisy has naturalized in most counties of Illinois and is fairly common (see Distribution Map). It was introduced into the United States from Eurasia as an ornamental plant. Habitats include mesic to dry prairies (including old cemetery prairies), weedy meadows in wooded areas, vacant lots, areas along roads and railroads, landfills, pastures, and waste areas. This plant is usually found in degraded areas, but it also persists in higher quality habitats. The Ox-Eye Daisy is often grown in flower gardens, from which it may escape. Sometimes the rhizomes survive earth-moving operations, thereby establishing colonies of plants in new areas. Faunal Associations
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“Oxeye Daisy” is commonly cultivated in gardens in hill stations in northern parts of Pakistan and is not eaten by cattle (Stewart, l. c.). In USA, it has become an obnoxious and aggressive weed and quickly establishes in wastelands, roadsides and meadows.
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Associations

Flower-Visiting Insects of Ox-Eye Daisy in Illinois

Leucanthemum vulgare (Ox-Eye Daisy) introduced
(Bees suck nectar or collect pollen, flies & beetles suck nectar or feed on pollen, other insects suck nectar; observations are from Graenicher, Krombein et al., Lewis, Mawdsley, MacRae, Robertson, and Swengel & Swengel as indicated below)

Bees (long-tongued)
Apidae (Apinae): Apis mellifera sn cp (Gr); Anthophoridae (Ceratinini): Ceratina dupla dupla sn cp (Rb, Gr); Anthophoridae (Nomadini): Nomada articulata sn (Rb); Megachilidae (Megachilini): Hoplitis pilosifrons sn (Rb), Megachile centuncularis sn cp (Gr); Megachilidae (Stelidini): Stelis foederalis sn (Rb), Stelis lateralis sn fq (Rb); Megachilidae (Trypetini): Heriades leavitti sn cp (Rb)

Bees (short-tongued)
Halictidae (Halictinae): Augochlorella aurata sn cp fq (Rb), Augochlorella striata sn (Gr), Halictus (or Lasioglossum) sp. sn cp (Gr), Halictus confusus sn cp (Gr), Halictus ligatus sn cp fq (Rb), Halictus rubicunda sn (Gr), Lasioglossum tegularis sn cp (Gr), Lasioglossum versatus sn cp (Gr); Halictidae (Sphecodini): Sphecodes cressonii sn (Gr), Sphecodes dichroa sn (Gr); Colletidae (Colletinae): Colletes eulophi (Kr); Colletidae (Hylaeinae): Hylaeus affinis cp (Gr), Hylaeus mesillae sn (Gr); Andrenidae (Andreninae): Andrena alleghaniensis (Kr), Andrena ceanothi (Kr), Andrena quintilis (Kr), Andrena rehni (Kr), Andrena wheeleri (Kr); Andrenidae (Panurginae): Calliopsis andreniformis sn fq (Rb, Kr), Heterosarus illinoiensis (Kr)

Wasps
Vespidae (Eumeninae): Euodynerus foraminatus (Gr), Leionotus ziziae (Rb, MS), Parancistrocerus pedestris (Gr)

Flies
Empididae: Empis clausa fq (Rb); Stratiomyidae: Nemotelus nigrinus (Gr), Odontomyia virgo (Gr) Stratiomys normula (Gr); Conopidae: Thecophora abbreviata (Gr), Thecophora occidensis (Gr), Zodion fulvifrons (Rb); Syrphidae: Eristalis brousii (Gr), Eristalis stipator (Rb), Eristalis tenax (Gr), Eristalis transversus (Gr), Eupeodes americanus (Gr), Helophilus fasciatus (Gr), Paragus tibialis (Gr), Sphaerophoria contiqua (Rb, Gr), Syritta pipiens (Rb, Gr), Syrphus ribesii (Gr), Toxomerus geminatus (Gr), Toxomerus marginatus (Gr), Tropidia mamillata (Rb); Tachinidae: Cylindromyia carolinae (Gr), Cylindromyia dosiades (Gr), Distichona varia (Rb), Leucostoma simplex (Rb), Phasia purpurascens fq (Rb), Spallanzania hesperidarum (Gr); Sarcophagidae: Helicobia sp. (Gr), Helicobia rapax (Gr), Sarcophaga sp. (Gr), Sphixapata trilineata (Gr); Calliphoridae: Lucilia illustris (Gr), Pollenia rudis (Gr); Muscidae: Graphomya maculata (Gr), Musca domestica (Gr), Neomyia cornicina (Rb); Anthomyiidae: Delia platura (Rb, Gr); Scathophagidae: Scathophaga stercoraria (Gr); Sciaridae: Sciara exigua (Gr); Tephritidae: Euaresta bella (Gr), Paroxyna clathrata (Rb); Agromyzidae: Melanogromyza aeneoventris (Gr)

Butterflies
Lycaenidae: Lycaeides melissa samuelis sn (Sw); Pieridae: Pieris rapae sn (Lw)

Beetles
Buprestidae: Acmaeodera neglecta (McR), Acmaeodera tubulus (McR); Chrysomelidae: Diabrotica undecimpunctata (Gr); Cleridae: Trichodes apivorus (Gr), Trichodes nutalli (Mwd); Coccinellidae: Hippodamia tredecimpunctata (Gr); Scarabaeidae: Trichiotinus piger fp (Rb)

Plant Bugs
Lygaeidae: Ligyrocoris sylvestris (Gr); Miridae: Adelphocoris rapidus (Gr), Lygus lineolaris (Gr), Plagiognathus sp. (Gr); Nabidae: Nabicula subcoleoptrata (Gr); Pentatomidae: Cosmopepla lintneriana (Gr), Euschistus variolaria (Gr); Phymatidae: Phymata fasciatus prd (Gr); Reduviidae: Sinea diadema prd (Gr)

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Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Acanthiophilus helianthi feeds within capitulum of Leucanthemum vulgare

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Apion stolidum feeds within rootstock? of Leucanthemum vulgare

Foodplant / sap sucker
nymph of Catoplatus fabricii sucks sap of Leucanthemum vulgare

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Chrysolina marginata may be found on Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: season: early 8-mid 11,4-

Plant / resting place / on
adult of Cryptocephalus bilineatus may be found on Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: season: (5-)6-9

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Dioxyna bidentis feeds within capitulum of Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: Other: uncertain

In Great Britain and/or Ireland:
Foodplant / feeds on
adult of Haplothrips leucanthemi feeds on pollen of Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / open feeder
adult of Longitarsus succineus grazes on leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare

Plant / resting place / within
puparium of Melanagromyza eupatorii may be found in stem of Leucanthemum vulgare

Foodplant / feeds on
Microplontus campestris feeds on Leucanthemum vulgare

Foodplant / gall
larva of Oxyna nebulosa causes gall of root of Leucanthemum vulgare
Other: sole host/prey

Foodplant / parasite
sporangium of Peronospora radii parasitises live flower of Leucanthemum vulgare

Foodplant / miner
larva of Phytomyza leucanthemi mines leaf (usually lower leaf) of Leucanthemum vulgare
Other: major host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
embedded chlamydospore of Protomycopsis leucanthemi causes spots on live leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: season: 7-9

Foodplant / parasite
amphigenous telium of Puccinia cnici-oleracei parasitises live leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: season: 7-11
Other: minor host/prey

Foodplant / spot causer
amphigenous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia bellunensis causes spots on live leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare

Foodplant / parasite
hypophyllous colony of Ramularia hyphomycetous anamorph of Ramularia tanaceti parasitises live leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare

Foodplant / spot causer
grouped, elliptic, rather pale brown pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria cercosporoides causes spots on fading leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: season: 7-10

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria chrysanthemella causes spots on live leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: season: 6-11

Foodplant / spot causer
mostly epiphyllous pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria leucanthemi causes spots on live leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: season: 5-9

Foodplant / spot causer
epiphyllous pycnidium of Septoria coelomycetous anamorph of Septoria socia causes spots on live leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare

Foodplant / internal feeder
larva of Tephritis neesi feeds within capitulum of Leucanthemum vulgare

Foodplant / miner
larva of Trypeta artemisiae mines leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: Other: uncertain

Foodplant / miner
larva of Trypeta zoe mines leaf of Leucanthemum vulgare
Remarks: Other: uncertain

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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flower/Fruit

Fl. Per.: May-September.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Leucanthemum vulgare

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Leucanthemum vulgare

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 20
Specimens with Barcodes: 36
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Chrysanthemum leucanthemum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: GNR - Not Yet Ranked

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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Cultivation

The preference is full or partial sun, mesic to slightly dry conditions, and a loam or clay-loam soil. This is a reliable and rugged plant.
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Wikipedia

Leucanthemum vulgare

Leucanthemum vulgare, the ox-eye daisy[1] or oxeye daisy, (syn. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum), is a widespread flowering plant native to Europe and the temperate regions of Asia and an introduced plant to North America, Australia, and New Zealand. It is one of a number of Asteraceae family plants to be called a "daisy", and has the vernacular names: common daisy, dog daisy, moon daisy, and oxe-eye daisy.

Leucanthemum vulgare is a typical grassland perennial wildflower, growing in a variety of plant communities including meadows and fields, under scrub and open-canopy forests, and in disturbed areas.[2]

Leucanthemum is from the Ancient Greek λευκός ("white") and ἄνθεμον ("flower").

Description[edit]

Leucanthemum vulgare is a perennial herb one to three feet high by 1 foot (0.30 m) wide.[3] The stem is mostly unbranched and sprouts laterally from a creeping rhizomatous rootstock.[2]

The leaves are dark green on both sides. The basal and middle leaves are petiolate, obovate to spoon-shaped, and serrate to dentate. The upper leaves are shorter, sessile, and borne along the stem.

Leucanthemum vulgare blooms from late spring to autumn. The small flower head, not larger than 5 centimetres (2.0 in), consists of about 20 white ray florets that surround a yellow disc, growing on the end of 1 to 3 ft (30 to 91 cm) tall stems. The plant produces an abundant number of flat seeds, without pappus, that remain viable in the soil for 2 to 3 years. It also spreads vegetatively by rhizomes.[2]

Uses[edit]

Leucanthemum vulgare: Ox-eye daisy flower

Food[edit]

The un-opened flower buds can be marinated and used in a similar way to capers.[4]

Cultivation[edit]

Leucanthemum vulgare is widely cultivated and available as a perennial flowering ornamental plant for gardens and designed meadow landscapes. It thrives in a wide range of conditions and can grow in sun to partial shade, and prefers damp soils. There are cultivars, such as 'May Queen' which begins blooming in early spring.

Invasive species[edit]

Leucanthemum vulgare became an introduced species via gardens into natural areas in parts of the Canada,[1] United States, Australia, and New Zealand, where it is now a common weed.[5] In some habitats it is an invasive species forming dense colonies displacing native plants and modifying existing communities, and is classified as a noxious weed.[6][7][8]

It is difficult to control or eradicate, since a new plant can regenerate from rhizome fragments[6] and is a problem in pastures where beef and dairy cattle graze, as usually they will not eat it, thus enabling it to spread.[9]

Ox-eye daisy is a host for several viral diseases affecting crops.[2]

Allergies[edit]

Allergies to daises do occur, usually causing contact dermatitis.[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Dickinson, T.; Metsger, D.; Bull, J.; & Dickinson, R. (2004) ROM Field Guide to Wildflowers of Ontario. Toronto:Royal Ontario Museum, p. 175.
  2. ^ a b c d Cirrus.image – Leucanthemum vulgare. Accessed 4.8.2011
  3. ^ Leucanthemum vulgare. 2013. Encyclopedia of Life. eds. Michael Frankis, Valter Jacinto & C. Michael Hogan
  4. ^ Ox-eye daisy capers, Daisy Capers at WildFoods.ca. Retrieved December 12, 2006.
  5. ^ Invasive.org: Ox-eye daisy. Accessed 4.8.2011
  6. ^ a b Cirrus.image – Ecological Impacts: Leucanthemum vulgare . accessed 4.8.2011
  7. ^ USDA – Noxious Weed Information: & U.S. Weed Information: Leucanthemum vulgare. Accessed 4.8.2011
  8. ^ Jepson Manual treatment: common escaped flora in California. Accessed 4.8.2011
  9. ^ Massey University, New Zealand: weed database. Accessed 21.1.2013
  10. ^ Gordon LA. "Compositae dermatitis. [Review] [30 refs] Australasian Journal of Dermatology. 40(3):123-8; quiz 129-30, 1999 Aug.

Further reading[edit]

See also[edit]

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Notes

Comments

Some botanists (e.g., W. J. Cody 1996) have treated Leucanthemum ircutianum de Candolle, with blades of mid and distal cauline leaves oblong to oblong-lanceolate and not ± pinnate at bases, as distinct from L. vulgare.
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Called Chrysanthemum leucanthemum in many floras and popular works.

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