Overview

Comprehensive Description

Summary

"Conus milneedwardsi, commonly called Glory of India, is a predatory and venomous marine gastropod found in the Indian Ocean."
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Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs throughout the western Indian Ocean, including Madagascar, India, and the East African coast (down to Kwazulu Natal) (Rockel et al. 1995). Subspecies C. m. clytospira is found from Pakistan to India and Sri Lanka.

The EOO, AOO, and number of locations for this species exceeds the criteria for B1, B2, and D2 classification.
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Range Description

This species is found in the Red Sea (Filmer 2001). However, there is uncertainty over its taxonomic status.
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Physical Description

Morphology

"Shell thin and slender with a smooth surface, acuminate spire and angulate shoulder. Shell white in colour. Body whorl with two chocolate spiral bands and a triangular or quadrangular pattern formed by axial reddish brown reticulated lines."
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Size

Shell size: 46 - 185 mm.
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Diagnostic Description

SubSpecies Varieties Races

"C. m. clytospira Melvill & Standen, 1899 - seen from Pakistan to India and Sri Lanka. C. m. lemuriensis Wils & Delsaerdt, 1989 - seen in the Indian ocean along Réunion and Mauritius."
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs on rocky, and sandy substrates in deepwater of 50 to 180 m. The typical size for shells of this species is between 60-174 mm in length (Rockel et al. 1995). This is a mollusciverous species, and is thought to be highly specialized (G. Raybaudi pers. comm. October 2011).

Systems
  • Marine
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Because of its uncertain taxonomic status, nothing can be confirmed about this species. It is thought to occur at around 60-80 m (E. Monnier pers comm. 2012).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 17 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 50 - 76
  Temperature range (°C): 21.859 - 21.859
  Nitrate (umol/L): 5.477 - 5.477
  Salinity (PPS): 35.358 - 35.358
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.403 - 4.403
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.273 - 0.273
  Silicate (umol/l): 3.177 - 3.177

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 50 - 76
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Population Biology

"A very rare species, it is believed that there are less than 100 individuals of this species globally."
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Raybaudi-Massilia, G.

Reviewer/s
Veldsman, S.G. & Peters, H.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species occurs throughout the western Indian Ocean, including Madagascar, India, and the East African coast (down to Kwazulu Natal). Subspecies C. m. clytospira is found from Pakistan to India and Sri Lanka. This is a wide ranging species, with no major threats at present. Trawling and dredging does occur, but is currently not deemed a significant threat to this iconic shell. Furthermore, trawling in Indian waters has decreased in recent years, reducing the threat further. It has therefore been assessed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
DD
Data Deficient

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Raybaudi-Massilia, G.

Reviewer/s
Peters, H. & Veldsman, S.G.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is found in the Red Sea. There is uncertainty about the taxonomy of this species. It is potentially a subspecies of C. milneedwardsii. Further research into taxonomy is needed before this species can be accurately evaluated. In the meantime it is considered Data Deficient on taxonomic grounds.
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Not Evaluated by IUCN Redlist.
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Population

Population
There are no population data available in the literature for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Population

Population
There is no population information for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known material threats to this species. However, it has a very attractive large shell and may therefore be subject to over-collecting. As a deepwater species, specimens will normally be brought to the surface as fisheries bycatch by dredging and trawling, and over-dredging may impact their habitat. However, these threats are unlikely to cause significant population declines at present, and trawling in India specifically also appears to have decreased in recent years (G. Raybaudi pers. comm. October 2011).
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Major Threats
Threats to this species are unknown. If it is a valid species occurring in the Red Sea, it should be benefiting from the protection of the Red Sea area which prohibits collection. Possible threats include oil pollution.
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Legislation

Listed in CITES: No. Listed in Wildlife (Protection) Act: Yes. Schedule: 1 Appendix: Part IV(B) Mollusca
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
This species has been studied quite well, so that there is currently no specific research needed on this species (G. Raybaudi pers. comm. October 2011). There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
If it is a valid species, then it will benefit from protection of the Red Sea, which prohibits collecting. Taxonomic validation is needed before a more accurate assessment can be made.
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Wikipedia

Conus milneedwardsi

Conus milneedwardsi, known to collectors as the "Glory of India", is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.[2]

Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled carefully or not at all.

Contents

Description

The size of an adult shell varies between 46 mm and 185 mm. This species has a rather thin and slender shell with a smooth surface, an acuminate Spire and an angulate shoulder. The color of the shell is white with two chocolate spiral bands on the body whorl. This body whorl shows a pattern of axial reddish brown reticulated lines forming white triangles or quadrangular markings.

Distribution

This marine species occurs along the African coast from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to the Red Sea

The subspecies C. m. clytospira Melvill & Standen, 1899 occurs from Pakistan to India and Sri Lanka, C. m. lemuriensis Wils & Delsaerdt, 1989 in the Indian ocean along Réunion and Mauritius.

References

  1. ^ Jousseaume, F., 1894. Diagnose des Coquilles de Nouveaux Mollusques. Bulletin Société Philomathique de Paris, ser 8 vol. 6: 98 -105
  2. ^ a b Conus milneedwardsi Jousseaume, 1894.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 31 July 2011.
  • Schmidt, W. & O. Bellec (1994). Findings of some uncommon sea-shells off Madagascar. African Journal of Tropical Hydrobiology and Fisheries 5(1): 63 - 66.
  • Filmer R.M. (2001). A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae 1758 - 1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 388pp
  • Tucker J.K. (2009). Recent cone species database. September 4th 2009 Edition
  • Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2009) Systematic classification of Recent and fossil conoidean gastropods. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. 296 pp.
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