Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species occurs in a wide area ranging from Indonesia in the south-west to Japan in the north-west to the Marshall islands in the north-east to Fiji in the south-east (Röckel et al. 1995). Possibly in Madagascar.

The EOO, AOO and number of locations exceed the thresholds for criteria B1 and B2.

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Range Description

This species occurs in shallow water and is widely distributed across the Indian Ocean, from the south coast of Natal along East Africa to south India and Sri Lanka (Röckel et al. 1995). Reports of this species further east in South-East Asia are doubtful.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species can be found at intertidal and upper subtidal depths of up to possibly 100 m (for juveniles) in sandy coral reef and shallow bays. It prefers to hide beneath rocks and dead coral. Adults prey on fish and are active at night, whereas juveniles are vermivorous. Adults can grow up to 94 mm, but will typically be smaller than this. (Röckel et al. 1995). Life history mode is intracapsular.

Systems
  • Marine
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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species occurs at depths between 3-25 m in muddy sand, beneath rocks, and within coral rubble. Adults will grow to approx. 76 mm but will typically be less than this (Röckel et al. 1995).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 11 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 18 - 65

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 18 - 65
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth range based on 9 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 4 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 1 - 3
  Temperature range (°C): 26.803 - 28.488
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.090 - 0.353
  Salinity (PPS): 33.691 - 34.975
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.454 - 4.666
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 0.131
  Silicate (umol/l): 1.005 - 2.276

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 1 - 3

Temperature range (°C): 26.803 - 28.488

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.090 - 0.353

Salinity (PPS): 33.691 - 34.975

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.454 - 4.666

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.100 - 0.131

Silicate (umol/l): 1.005 - 2.276
 
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Conus magus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

ATCGGGACATTGTACATTCTATTTGGAATATGATCGGGACTAGTAGGGACTGCTTTA---AGGTTGTTGATTCGTGCGGAATTAGGGCAACCTGGTGCTTTGCTTGGGGAT---GATCAGTTATATAATGTAATTGTAACGGCGCATGCCTTTGTTATAATTTTTTTTTTAGTAATGCCTATGATAATTGGGGGGTTTGGAAATTGATTAGTACCTTTGATA---TTAGGAGCTCCAGACATAGTATTTCCTCGCTTAAATAATATGAGTTTTTGGCTTCTTCCTCCTGCACTTTTACTTCTTTTGTCCTCGGCTGCAGTGGAAAGGGGGGTAGGTACTGGATGGACTGTATATCCACCTCTTGCAGGAAATCTAGCTCATGCTGGTGGTTCTGTAGATCTT---GCAATTTTTTCTTTACATCTTGCTGGGGTATCTTCTATTTTAGGAGCTGTAAACTTTATTACCACAATTATTAATATACGGTGACAAGGAATGAAATTTGAGCGTCTTTCGTTATTTGTGTGATCGGTGAAGATTACGGCTATTTTACTTCTTTTATCTTTACCTGTTTTGGCAGGG---GCTATTACTATACTTTTGACTGATCGAAATTTTAATACTGCTTTCTTTGATCCAGCAGGAGG
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Conus magus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Conus aff. magus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Conus aff. magus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Barcode data: Conus metcalfii

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Conus metcalfii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Genomic DNA is available from 2 specimens with morphological vouchers housed at Ocean Genome Legacy and Queensland Museum
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Duda, T.

Reviewer/s
Peters, H. & Tagaro, S.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific. It is very common in shallow waters across its wide distributional range. There are no known major threats to this species and its distribution will coincide with marine protected areas. We listed this as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Veldsman, S.G.

Reviewer/s
Peters, H. & Raybaudi-Massilia, G.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species occurs in shallow water and is widely distributed across the Indian ocean, from the south coast of Natal along East Africa to Sri Lanka. It has no known current threats to its population. It has therefore been assessed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
This species is very common in shallow waters across its wide range.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Population

Population
There are no data on population levels for this species.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known major threats to this species.
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Major Threats
There are no known material threats to this species.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species. Its distribution will coincide with marine protected areas.
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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures currently in place for this species.
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Wikipedia

Conus magus

Conus magus, common name the magical cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.[1]

Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. Their venom contains conotoxins which have powerful neurotoxic effects. Given that they are capable of "stinging" humans, live cone shells should be handled with great care or preferably not at all.

Description[edit]

Conus magus (syn.:Conus fulvobullatus) shows the variability in pattern and color of this species

The size of an adult shell varies between 16 mm and 94 mm. This common species is very variable in pattern and shade of coloring and embraces a large synonymy. The moderate spire is striate. The body whorl is long and rather cylindrical, closely striate below. The color of the shell is white, clouded with bluish ash, orange-brown, chestnut or chocolate, everywhere encircled by narrow chocolate interrupted lines, often separated into somewhat distant dots The middle of the body whorl is usually irregularly fasciate with white. The spire is tessellated with chestnut or chocolate.[2]

Venom use[edit]

Ziconotide is a chemical derived from the Conus magus toxin that acts as a painkiller with a potency 1000 times that of morphine. Discovered by Dr. Baldomero Olivera at University of Utah, it was developed for treatment of chronic and intractable pain caused by AIDS, cancer, neurological disorders and other maladies, and was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in December 2004 under the name Prialt.

Ziconotide works by blocking sodium channels in pain-transmitting nerve cells, rendering them unable to transmit pain signals to the brain. It is administered through injection into the spinal fluid.[3]

Distribution[edit]

This marine species occurs in the Red Sea and in the Indian Ocean along Madagascar and the Mascarene Basin. It is also found over a wide area of the Pacific Ocean from Indonesia to Japan and to the Marshall Islands, Wallis and Futuna and Fiji, but mainly centered on the Philippines.

References[edit]

  • Vine, P. (1986). Red Sea Invertebrates. Immel Publishing, London. 224 pp
  • Filmer R.M. (2001). A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae 1758 - 1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 388pp
  • Tucker J.K. (2009). Recent cone species database. September 4, 2009 Edition
  • Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2009) Systematic classification of Recent and fossil conoidean gastropods. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. 296 pp

Gallery[edit]

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Conus augur

Conus augur, common name the auger cone, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails, cone shells or cones.[2]

Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled carefully or not at all.

Description[edit source | edit]

The size of an adult shell varies between 45 mm and 76 mm. The creamy white shell is encircled by close rows of very small chestnut dots, with two bands of irregular brown markings, one above, the other below the middle of the body whorl. The spire is maculated with brown.[3]

Distribution[edit source | edit]

This marine species occurs in the Indian Ocean along the Aldabra Atoll and Madagascar; and in the Southwest Pacific Ocean.

References[edit source | edit]

  1. ^ Lightfoot, J., 1786. A Catalogue of the Portland Museum, Lately the Property of the Duchess Dowager of Portland, Deceased; Which will be sold by Auction.
  2. ^ a b Conus augur sensu Lightfoot, 1786 .  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 12 July 2011.
  3. ^ George Washington Tryon, Manual of Conchology, vol. VI, p. 51; 1879
  • Filmer R.M. (2001). A Catalogue of Nomenclature and Taxonomy in the Living Conidae 1758 - 1998. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. 388pp.
  • Tucker J.K. (2009). Recent cone species database. September 4, 2009 Edition

Gallery[edit source | edit]

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