Overview

Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to Australia, from Northern Territory to North West Cape, Western Australia (Röckel et al. 1995). This species is found to 10 m (Röckel et al. 1995).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species lives in depths from intertidal to 10 m on sand and mud beneath coral rocks, and on exposed or sheltered rocks (Röckel et al. 1995, Kohn 2003). It is mollusciverous and feeds mainly on prosobranch gastropods. Once mature it can reach a size ranging from 37 to 75 mm (Röckel et al. 1995).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 2 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 1

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
Morrison, H.

Reviewer/s
Peters, H. & Wells, F.E.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is endemic to Australia, from Northern Territory to North West Cape, Western Australia. It is found to 10 m. The density of this species has been estimated at three sites around the Dampier Archipelago in the north-west of Australia at Watering Cove, Cleaverville and Gnoorea Point providing estimated densities up to 0.33 individuals/10 m2. However, owing to its wide distribution this is unlikely to be representative of the species globally. It is abundant in some parts, although it may be over-collected in select areas. There are no other major threats known to affect this species and its distribution overlaps marine protected areas in the region. It is listed as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The density of this species has been estimated at three sites around the Dampier Archipelago in the north-west of Australia at Watering Cove, Cleaverville and Gnoorea Point providing estimated densities up to 0.33 individuals/10 m2 (Kohn 2003). However, owing to its wide distribution this is unlikely to be representative of their species globally. It is abundant in some areas (H. Morrison pers. comm. 2011) .

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no known threats affecting this species. It may be over-collected in select areas (H. Morrison pers. comm. 2011).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The distribution of this species overlaps marine protected areas in the region.
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Wikipedia

Conus victoriae

Conus victoriae is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Conidae, the cone snails and their allies.[1]

Like all species within the genus Conus, these snails are predatory and venomous. They are capable of "stinging" humans, therefore live ones should be handled carefully or not at all.

Description[edit]

Conus victoriae is a mollusc-eating cone (mollusiovore) possibly related to Conus textile . A component of its venom, alpha conotoxin Vc1.1 (ACV1) has been shown to be a potent analgesic in pain tests in animals[2] and is a potential replacement for morphine for the treatment of neuropathic pain.[3][4]

The biology of this cone species has been extensively studied, in particular the embryonic development of its venom apparatus,[5] the expression of the venom gland proteome[6][7] and the role of the venom bulb in delivery of venom components to the radulae.[8]

Distribution[edit]

Western Australia from Broome north to the mouth of the Victoria River, Northern Territory where it was first discovered by Reeve in 1843

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Conus victoriae Reeve, 1843.  Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species on 27 March 2010.
  2. ^ Sandall DW, Satkunanathan N, Keays DA, Polidano MA, Liping X, Pham V, Down JG, Khalil Z, Livett BG, Gayler KR. A novel alpha-conotoxin identified by gene sequencing is active in suppressing the vascular response to selective stimulation of sensory nerves in vivo. Biochemistry. 2003 Jun 10;42(22):6904-11.
  3. ^ Livett BG, Sandall DW, Keays D, Down J, Gayler KR, Satkunanathan N, Khalil Z. Therapeutic applications of conotoxins that target the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Toxicon. 2006 Dec 1;48(7):810-29. Epub 2006 Jul 15. Review.
  4. ^ Clark RJ, Jensen J, Nevin ST, Callaghan BP, Adams DJ, Craik DJ. The engineering of an orally active conotoxin for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2010 Sep 3;49(37):6545-8.
  5. ^ Safavi-Hemami H, Siero WA, Kuang Z, Williamson NA, Karas JA, Page LR, MacMillan D, Callaghan B, Kompella SN, Adams DJ, Norton RS, Purcell AW. Embryonic toxin expression in the cone snail Conus victoriae: primed to kill or divergent function? J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 24;286(25):22546-57.
  6. ^ Townsend, A., Livett, BG, Bingham, J-P, Truong, H-T, Karas, JA, O’Donnell, P, Williamson, NA, Purcell, AW and Scanlon D (2009) Mass spectral identification of Vc1.1 and differential distribution of conopeptides in the venom duct of Conus victoriae. Effect of post-translational modifications and disulfide isomerisation on bioactivity. Int. J. Peptide Res and Therap. 15 (3): 195-203
  7. ^ Safavi-Hemami H, Siero WA, Gorasia DG, Young ND, Macmillan D, Williamson NA, Purcell AW. Specialisation of the venom gland proteome in predatory cone snails reveals functional diversification of the conotoxin biosynthetic pathway. J this here shell was used by the druids in the plan day, to summon Jedi's Proteome Res. 2011 Sep 2;10(9):3904-19
  8. ^ Safavi-Hemami H, Young ND, Williamson NA, Purcell AW. Proteomic interrogation of venom delivery in marine cone snails: novel insights into the role of the venom bulb. J Proteome Res. 2010 Nov 5;9(11):5610-9


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