The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Bright, E. 2009. "The Chironomid Home Page" (On-line). Accessed May 11, 2009 at
  • Chironomidae
  • Coffman, W., L. Ferrington Jr.. 1996. Chironomidae. Pp. 591-754 in R Merritt, K Cummins, eds. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. Dubuque, Iowa, USA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.
  • D. R. Oliver, “Chapter 29. Chironomidae”, in Manual of Nearctic Diptera, vol. 1, J. F. McAlpine, B. V. Peterson, G. E. Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth, and D. M. Wood Ottawa: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1981, pp. 423-458.
  • F. A. A. Skuse, “Diptera of Australia. Part VI. The Chironomidae”, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. (2)4, pp. 215–311, 1889.
  • Foote, B. 1987. Chironomidae (Chironomoidea). Pp. 762-764 in F Stehr, ed. Immature Insects, Vol. 2. Dubuque, Iowa, USA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company.
  • McCafferty, W. 1983. Aquatic Entomology: The Fishermen's and Ecologists' Illustrated Guide to Insect and Their Relatives. Boston, Massachusetts, USA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc..
  • WoRMS (2015). Chironomidae. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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