Overview

Distribution

endemic to a single nation

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Delineating the precise distribution of this species is problematic. Burch (1989) (as a subspecies of Physella heterostropha) cites "eastern United States to the Ohio and Mississippi rivers and Iowa". Taylor (2003) lists "southeastern US, in AL and FL at least." Wethington and Lydeard 2007 puts in at least Connecticut but notes both Physa hendersoni and Physa pomilia are monophyletic with P. pomilia of the southeastern USA (Alabama) more closely related to the P. pomilia of the northeastern USA (Connecticut) than to the P. hendersoni of the southeastern USA (North Carolina). Wethington and Lydeard (2007) further suggest that the range of P. pomilia given by Te (1978) [the basis for the distribution given in Burch (1989)] should be extended through the southeastern US possibly into the Caribbean.

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Ecology

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: > 300

Comments: Dillon et al. (2007) have recently completed a series of mate choice tests and no-choice breeding studies confirming Clench's (1925) impression that hendersoni populations from Yemassee are not reproductively isolated from P. pomilia collected at its Alabama type locality; therefore, South Carolina populations are at best subspecies of P. pomilia. Dillon and Stewart (2003) characterize South Carolina populations in the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain and slightly into the Southeastern Plains (southern portion of the state) as this species. Dillon et al. (2006) similarly characterize Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain populations in North Carolina (eastern part of the state) as this species including Lake Waccamaw (Dawley, 1965). Clench (1925) lists it as in ponds in Kentucky confirmed by a recent occurrence (R. Evans, KY NHP, pers. comm., 2010). Dillon et al. (2006) also include a few occurrences in the Southeastern Plains and Southern Coastal Plain of Georgia. Clench and Turner (1956) list the Suwannee (Withcaloochee drainage in Florida), Econfina (Florida), Wakulla (Florida), Ochlockonee (Georgia), Apalachicola (Flint drainage in Georgia, Chattahoochee drainage in Alabama and Florida, and Apalachicola drainage in Florida), Choctawhatchee (Pea drainage in Alabama), and Escambia (Conecuh drainage in Alabama) River systems. Taylor (2003) (as Haitia pomilia) cites Baldwin, Marengo, Monroe, and Wilcox Cos., Alabama; and Wakulla Co., Florida. Thompson (1999) claims it occurs throughout peninsular Florida. Dillon and Benfield (1982) documented this species in the New River in southwestern Virginia but not into northwestern North Carolina. Wu et al. (1997) list it as widely distributed in Missouri (Andrew, Audrain, Bates, Boone, Cape Cirardeau, Carroll, Cedar, Chariton, Clark, Clay, Cole, Crawford, Dade, Dunklin, Franklin, Gasconade, Grundy, Henry, Hickory, Howard, Howell, Iron, Jackson, Jefferson, Johnson, Lafayette, McDonald, Marion, Moniteau, Morgan, Oregon, Ozark, Pemiscot, Perry, Pettis, Pike, Polk, Putnam, Ralls, Ripley, St. Charles, St. Louis, Ste. Genevieve, Saline, Scott, Shannon, Stoddard, Wayne Cos.). Wu and Liu (2001) cite occurrences in Kansas in the eastern two thirds of the state in Brown, Chase, Chautauqua, Clark, Cloud, Coffey, Dickinson, Douglas, Ellis, Ford, Franklin, Greenwood, Jackson, Jewell, Johnson, Marshall, Meade, Mitchell, Morris, Nemaha, Norton, Pottawatomie, Reno, Riley, Shawnee, Smith, Trego, and Washington Cos. Wu (2005) documented it widely in Nebraska in Arthur, Buffalo, Cherry, Dawson, Dundy, Jefferson, Lincoln, Morrill, Red Willow, Richardson, Scotts Bluff, Sheridan, Sioux Cos.

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Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Physa pomilia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 4 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TGGTCAACAAATCATAAAGATATTGGAACTTTATATTTAATTTTTGGTGTATGATGTGGTTTAGTTGGAACGGGATTA---AGTTTATTAATTCGTTTAGAACTAGGTACTACATTGGTATTATTAGATGAG------CACTTTTATAATGTTATTGTTACTGCACATGCTTTCGTTATAATTTTTTTTATGGTGATACCTATAATGATTGGGGGATTTGGTAATTGAATAGTGCCA---ATACTAATTGGTGCTCCCGATATAAGTTTCCCCCGAATAAATAATATAAGTTTTTGATTATTACCACCTTCGTTTGTATTATTGTTATGCAGTTCTATAGTAGAAGGGGGAGTTGGAACAGGGTGAACAGTTTATCCTCCATTATCTGGCCCTATTGCTCACTCTGGGTCTTCTGTAGATTTA---GCTATTTTCTCGTTACATTTAGCTGGTTTATCTTCTATTCTTGGAGCAATTAATTTCATTACGACTATTTTTAATATACGTTCACCAGGAATTACTCTGGAACGTATGAGATTATTTGTGTGATCTGTATTAATCACAGCATTTTTATTATTACTATCATTACCGGTATTAGCAGGA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Physa pomilia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: Delineating the precise distribution of this species is problematic. Burch (1989) (as a subspecies of Physella heterostropha) cites "eastern US to OH and MS rivers and Iowa". Taylor (2003) lists "southeastern US, in AL and FL at least." Wethington and Lydeard 2007 puts in at least Connecticut but notes both Physa hendersoni and Physa pomilia are monophyletic with P. pomilia of the southeastern USA (Alabama) more closely related to the P. pomilia of the northeastern USA (Connecticut) than to the P. hendersoni of the southeastern USA (North Carolina). Wethington and Lydeard (2007) further suggest that the range of P. pomilia given by Te (1978) [the basis for the distribution given in Burch (1989)] should be extended through the southeastern US possibly into the Caribbean. This species has a wide distribution, presumed large population, occurrence in a number of protected areas, tolerance of a broad range of habitats, tolerance to habitat modification, lack of substantial immediate threats, and because it is not in decline or is unlikely to be declining fast enough to qualify for listing in a more threatened category.

Environmental Specificity: Broad. Generalist or community with all key requirements common.

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Global Short Term Trend: Unknown

Global Long Term Trend: Unknown

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Threats

Degree of Threat: Low

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Management

Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Burch (1989) lists this species as Physella heterostropha pomilia based on Te (1980). Taylor (2003) lists this species as Haitia [= Physa] pomilia. Although outwardly quite similar to Physa acuta, sequence data and penial morphology both confirm that Physa pomilia is distinct (Wethington and Lydeard, 2007). Conrad originally described P. pomilia from Randons Creek near Claiborne, Alabama. Clench (1925) described a subspecies, P. pomilia hendersoni, from Yemassee, Beaufort County, South Carolina. Te (1978) synonymized pomilia under heterostropha and raised hendersoni to the rank of full species. It was this Te classification of the Physidae that was adopted by Burch (1989). Dillon et al. (2007) have recently completed a series of mate choice tests and no-choice breeding studies confirming Clench's (1925) impression that hendersoni populations from Yemassee are not reproductively isolated from P. pomilia collected at its Alabama type locality. These no-choice mating experiments indicated no evidence of reproductive isolation between Physa hendersoni and Physa pomilia (Dillon et al., 2007). Wethington and Lydeard (2007), however, indicate both Phya hendersoni and Physa pomilia are monophyletic (but very closely related and potentially could be synonymous) with P. pomilia of the southeastern USA (Alabama) more closely related to the P. pomilia of the northeastern USA (Connecticut) than to the P. hendersoni of the southeastern USA (North Carolina). A study of molecular phylogeny of the family Physidae conducted by Wethington and Lydeard (2007) resulted in proposed monophyly of the family and supported six major clades, each with a corresponding difference in penial morphology; with Physa pomilia falling within the type bc group.

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