Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The type locality of this species is in the Indian Ocean at 10°8'S, 97°14'E. It is also found off southern Japan, the Philippine Islands, the Hawaiian Islands, and through the central equatorial Pacific. Given these locations, it presumably also occurs throughout the tropical and subtropical Indo-Pacific, but records are limited (Young 2014). Roper and Jereb (2010) report it as occurring in the eastern Indian Ocean and in the Pacific Ocean in north subtropical and equatorial waters.

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Physical Description

Type Information

Holotype for Belonella pacifica pacifica Nesis, 1972
Catalog Number: USNM 332946
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Invertebrate Zoology
Sex/Stage: female;
Preparation: Isopropyl Alcohol
Year Collected: 1906
Locality: Kyushu Island, Koshika Island, Tsurikake Saki Light, S 85 Deg. E, 17.2 Mile, Kagoshima, Japan, North Pacific Ocean
Depth (m): 675 to 742
Vessel: Albatross R/V
  • Holotype: Nesis, K. N. 1972. Zoologichesky Zhurnal. 51(3): 342-343, fig. 1.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
These are large pelagic and oceanic squids that reach up to 660 mm in mantle length (Young and Mangold 2009). This mesopelagic species has planktonic paralarvae (Young and Mangold 2009). Similar to Sandalops melancholicus, the eye of this species changes during ontogenetic development (Young and Mangold 2009). Off Hawaii, this species undergoes downward vertical ontogenetic migration (Young and Mangold 2009). Here, the paralarvae have stalked, laterally compressed eyes and occur in the upper 400 m, larger juveniles occur between 500 and 700 m, and subadults with hemispherical eyes occur below 700 m in depth (Young and Mangold 2009).

Systems
  • Marine
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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 550 - 708.5
  Temperature range (°C): 11.407 - 11.455
  Nitrate (umol/L): 16.134 - 16.346
  Salinity (PPS): 35.569 - 35.573
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.278 - 4.290
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.982 - 1.006
  Silicate (umol/l): 6.969 - 7.038

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 550 - 708.5

Temperature range (°C): 11.407 - 11.455

Nitrate (umol/L): 16.134 - 16.346

Salinity (PPS): 35.569 - 35.573

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.278 - 4.290

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.982 - 1.006

Silicate (umol/l): 6.969 - 7.038
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2014

Assessor/s
Barratt, I. & Allcock, L.

Reviewer/s
Vecchione, M., Young, R. & Böhm, M.

Contributor/s

Justification
Taonius belone is an oceanic species which inhabits deep-water, making it is less susceptible to human impact. It has therefore been assessed as Least Concern. However, more research is still needed on its ecology and biology.
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Population

Population
Its population size is unknown.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
The threats to this species are not known.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no species-specific conservation measures in place for this species. Further research is recommended, specifically on the distribution, population abundance and ecology of this species.
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